Kalsium-ionisaatio

Calcium Ion Efflux -ilmiö:

Bawin, S. M., Kaczmarek, L. K., & Adey, W. R. (1975). Effects of modulated VHF fields on the central nervous system. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247, 74-81.

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/119654674/abstract

Dokumentti: http://efile.mpsc.cis.state.mi.us/efile/docs/13934/0077.pdf

http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1807758

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112127444/abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6712751

Mahdollinen yhteys sähköyliherkkyyteen:

Goldsworthy, A. (2007). Biological effects of weak electromagnetic fields. Radiation Research Trust. A Report. http://www.radiationresearch.org/pdfs/goldsworthy_bio_weak_em_07.pdf

http://www.sciencenews.org/view/access/id/41699/title/NANOTUBE_AND_TUNNEL_CROWD

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18386044

ICNIRP:n raja-arvoista

Suomessa voimassa olevien sähkömagneettisten kenttien ICNIRP-raja-arvot:

http://www.icnirp.de/documents/emfgdl.pdf

http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/alkup/2002/20020294

http://www.finlex.fi/data/sdliite/liite/4354.pdf

ja niiden kritiikki:

http://www.powerwatch.org.uk/gen/intguidance.asp

http://www.salzburg.gv.at/salzburg_resolution_e.htm

http://www.radiationresearch.org/conference/downloads/021235_grigoriev.pdf

http://www.emfacts.com/papers/icnirp_critique.pdf

http://www.microwavenews.com/nc_oct2005.html#partners

http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/heseuk/science.php?content_type=R

http://www.microwavenews.com/IndustryRulesRF.html

Norjalainen videodokumentti ICNIRP-raja-arvoista ja niiden teollisuuskytkennöistä:

http://www.nrk.no/programmer/tv/brennpunkt/1.6292981

http://www1.nrk.no/nett-tv/klipp/428197

Carl Blackmannin katsaus signaalimuuntelun vaikutuksiin ja miten ICNIRP-raja-arvo ei tätä huomioi:

http://www.bioinitiative.org/report/docs/section_14.pdf

Blackman, C. (2009) Cell phone radiation: Evidence from ELF and RF studies supporting more inclusive risk identification and assessment, Pathophysiology (2009).

http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/524214/description#description 

(Pathophysiology-journalin erikoisnumero sähkömagneettisten kenttien terveysvaikutuksista.)

Biologisia vaikutuksia yli 60 % riippumattomista tutkimuksista ja ICNIRP-raja-arvot perustuvat vain lämpövaikutuksiin:

Huss, A., Egger, M., Hug, K., Huwiler-Müntener, K., & Röösli, M. (2007). Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: systematic review of experimental studies. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(1), 1-4. doi: 17366811.

http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2006/9149/abstract.html

Kaikki riippumattomat EMF-tutkimukset vuoteen 2006 mennessä luokiteltu biologisten vaikutusten perusteella:

http://home.scarlet.be/~tsf94646/001/documents/EMF%20&%20Health%20-%20Over%20900%20Studies%20.pdf

Interphone-tutkimushanke

Perusinfo:

http://www.iarc.fr/en/Research-Groups/Clusters-Groups/Biostatistics-and-Epidemiology-Cluster/Radiation-Group/The-INTERPHONE-Study

http://www.iarc.fr/en/research-groups/RAD/RCAd.html

Economis-lehden artikkeli: Mobile madness
http://www.economist.com/sciencetechnology/displaystory.cfm?story_id=12295222

Pitkäaikaiskäyttäjien (yli 10 vuotta) riskiä indikoivat Interphone-tutkimukset:

http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/167/4/457

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17230523

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17851009

Johtaja Lloyd Morganin, Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Interphone-kritiikki:

http://www.radiationresearch.org/pdfs/20080612_morgan_bems.pdf

Khurana, V. G., Teo, C., Kundi, M., Hardell, L., & Carlberg, M. (2009). Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including the long-term epidemiologic data. Surgical Neurology, In Press, Corrected Proof. doi: 10.1016/j.surneu.2009.01.019.  

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19328536

Melanoman lisääntymisestä:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/10/AR2008071001231.html

http://www.expressen.se/halsa/1.1610983/allt-fler-svenskar-far-hudcancer

Aivolymfooman lisääntymisestä:

http://www.kaleva.fi/plus/index.cfm?j=736386

Rintasyövän lisääntymisestä:

http://www.breastcancerfund.org/site/c.kwKXLdPaE/b.3955907/k.FACE/Chemical_Fact_Sheet_Nonionizing_Radiation.htm

http://www.umg-verlag.de/umwelt-medizin-gesellschaft/404_ege.html

https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=1878

http://www.canceractive.com/page.php?n=970

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2003/pr27/en/

Mekaaniset tutkimukset ja niiden tarve:

Video: http://multimedia.biol.uoa.gr/2008/Seminaria_Diplwmatikes%20k.a/Synedrio_Thess/Global%20new/Belyaev_files/pbcast0.htm

 1 tunnin kännykkäaltistus häiritsee valkosoluihin kuuluvien lymfosyyttien DNA:n korjaustoimintaa ja tämä tila kestää 72 tuntia:

Belyaev, I. Y., Markovà, E., Hillert, L., Malmgren, L. O. G., & Persson,

B. R. R. (2008). Microwaves from UMTS/GSM mobile phones induce

long-lasting inhibition of 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes. Bioelectromagnetics.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839414

Puheenvuoroja

Hänninen et al. (2007) ’Matkapuhelinteknologia – Mitkä ovat terveysriskit?’  -kirja:
http://www.sahkoailmassa.fi/matkapuhelinteknologia.html

Tutkija Mikko Ahosen blogi
http://beyondcreativity.blogs.com/

Yleisönosastokirjoitus 24.8.2009 + lähteet
http://www.uta.fi/~mikko.ahonen/Hanninen_Kinnunen_Ahonen_Matkapuhelimiin_liittyva_terveysriski.htm

IS Artikkeli 25.8.2009 + keskustelu
Terveydenhuollon asiantuntijat varoittavat lapsia ja heidän vanhempiaan kännykän käytön vaaroista.

Fysiologian emeritusprofessori Osmo Hänninen, työterveyshuollon erikoislääkäri Seppo Kinnunen ja tutkija Mikko Ahonen kirjoittavat aiheesta Helsingin Sanomien mielipidesivulla.

Miehet perustavat varoituksensa useisiin tutkimuksiin. Tutkimuksissa on muun muassa selvinnyt, että pitkäaikainen altistus matkapuhelimen säteilylle saattaa aiheuttaa mikrotumien muodostumista, veriaivonesteen vuotamista ja erityyppisten kasvainten lisääntymistä.

Sähkömagneettisten kenttien on katsottu myös vaurioittavan dna:ta ja mikroaaltosäteilyn sukusoluja. Lisäksi säteily häiritsee käpyrauhasen melatoniinin ja seratoniinin tuotantoa.

Asiantuntijat muistuttavat Euroopan parlamentin huhtikuisesta suosituksesta, jonka mukaan kännyköitä ei pitäisi markkinoida alle 12-vuotiaille eikä koulujen lähelle tulisi pystyttää tukiasemia.

Miesten mukaan lasten kallo suojaa säteilyltä huonosti, joten säteily tunkeutuu syvemmälle päähän kuin aikuisilla.

“Lankapuhelin on ainoa turvallinen puhelin”, he kirjoittavat Helsingin Sanomissa.

“Toivomme, että vihdoin alkaa keskustelu lankaverkon alasajon terveysvaikutuksista ja siitä, miksi liikenne- ja viestintäministeriö on sallinut operaattoreille lankaverkon sulkemisen osassa Suomea.”
http://www.iltasanomat.fi/hyvaolo/terveys.asp?id=1722889

ECOLOG

T-Mobil, operaattorin tilaama ECOLOG-raportti matkapuhelinteknologioiden terveysvaikutuksista:

Johdanto: http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/niemr/ecologsum.php

Koko raportti: http://www.hese-project.org/hese-uk/en/papers/ecolog2000.pdf

Saksalaiset lääkärialoitteet matkapuhelimista ja tukiasemista – koottuna:

http://appelle.diagnose-funk.org/

[Selaa sivun yläosan välilehtiä, tabs]

Wireless Technology Research

Wireless Technology Research (WTR) –tutkimusprojekti, loppuraportti:

Carlo, G. L., & Jenrow, R. S. (2000). Scientific progress – wireless phones and brain cancer: current state of the science. Medscape General Medicine, 2(3), E40.

 http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/408066

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11104486

 Kirja WTR-tutkimusprojektista ja löydöksistä:

Carlo, G., & Schram, M. (2002). Cell Phones: Invisible Hazards in the Wireless Age: An Insider’s Alarming Discoveries about Cancer and Genetic Damage (p. 320). Basic Books.

http://www.amazon.com/Cell-Phones-Invisible-Wireless-Discoveries/dp/0786708182

Veriaivoesteen vuotamisesta:

Salford, L. G., Brun, A., Sturesson, K., Eberhardt, J. L., & Persson, B. R. (1994). Permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz. Microscopy Research and Technique, 27(6), 535-42. doi: 10.1002/jemt.1070270608.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8012056

Salford, L. G., Brun, A. E., Eberhardt, J. L., Malmgren, L., & Persson, B. R. R. (2003). Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(7), 881-3; discussion A408.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12782486
Tuoreempi katsaus videolla:
http://multimedia.biol.uoa.gr/2008/Seminaria_Diplwmatikes%20k.a/Synedrio_Thess/Global%20new/L.htm

Leszczynski, D., Joenvaara, S., Reivinen, J., & Kuokka, R. (121). Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: Molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation, 70(2-3), 120-129.

 http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700207.x

 Schirmacher, A., Winters, S., Fischer, S., Goeke, J., Galla, H. J., Kullnick, U., et al. (2000). Electromagnetic fields (1.8 GHz) increase the permeability to sucrose of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics, 21(5), 338-45.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10899769

Albert, E. N., & Kerns, J. M. (1981). Reversible microwave effects on the blood-brain barrier. Brain Research, 230(1-2), 153-164.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7317776 

 Quock, R. M., Fujimoto, J. M., Ishii, T. K., & Lange, D. G. (1986). Microwave facilitation of methylatropine antagonism of central cholinomimetic drug effects. Radiation Research, 105(3), 328-340.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3961098

 Neubauer, C., Phelan, A. M., Kues, H., & Lange, D. G. (1990). Microwave irradiation of rats at 2.45 GHz activates pinocytotic-like uptake of tracer by capillary endothelial cells of cerebral cortex. Bioelectromagnetics, 11(4), 261-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2285411

Vanhempia tutkimuksia ja lisäinfoa mekanismista:

http://csifcem.free.fr/bbb.html

 Mikrotumien muodostumisesta merkkinä geneettisestä vauriosta:

 Shelby, M. D., Erexson, G. L., Hook, G. J., & Tice, R. R. (1993). Evaluation of a three-exposure mouse bone marrow micronucleus protocol: results with 49 chemicals. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 21(2), 160-79.

 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8444144

 Tice, R., Hook, G. & McRee, D.I. (1999). Genetic Damage from Cellphone Radiation. Proc. 30th Annual Meeting of the Environmental Mutagen Society, Washington DC, March 1999.

Tice, R. R., Hook, G. G., Donner, M., McRee, D. I., & Guy, A. W. (2002). Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells. Bioelectromagnetics, 23(2), 113-26.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11835258

Garaj-Vrhovac, V. (1999). Micronucleus assay and lymphocyte mitotic activity in risk assessment of occupational exposure to microwave radiation. Chemosphere, 39(13), 2301-12.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10576101

d’Ambrosio, G., Massa, R., Scarfi, M. R., & Zeni, O. (2002). Cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes following GMSK phase modulated microwave exposure. Bioelectromagnetics, 23(1), 7-13.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11793401

STUK:n suositukset

Lasten matkapuhelimen käyttöä on hyvä rajoittaa (7.1.2009)
http://www.stuk.fi/stuk/tiedotteet/fi_FI/news_527/

Aikaisempi yhteispohjoismainen suositus vuodelta 2004, jossa STUK mukana:
http://sateilyturvakeskus.fi/stuk/tiedotteet/2004/fi_FI/news_340/_files/12222632510008322/default/NordicMobilPress2004.pdf

 

Euroopan ympäristövirasto

Radiation risk from everyday devices assessed
A new report raising concerns about the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health calls for tougher safety standards to regulate radiation from mobile phones, power lines and many other sources of exposure in daily life. The report, ‘Bioinitiative: A Rationale for a Biologically-Based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields’ was compiled by the BioInitiative Working Group, an international group of scientists, researchers and public health policy professionals. The EEA has contributed to this new report with a chapter drawn from the EEA study ‘Late lessons from early warnings: the precautionary principle 1896–2000’ published in 2001.

http://www.eea.europa.eu/highlights/radiation-risk-from-everyday-devices-assessed

(Sivulla linkkikooste tutkimuksiin / raportteihin)

Ranska kieltää puhelimet kouluissa

Times Online May 27, 2009 Mobile phones to be banned in French primary schools to limit health risks

Mobile telephones are to be banned from French primary schools, and operators must offer handsets that allow only text messages, under government measures to reduce the health risk to children.

Companies will also be required to supply phones that work only with headsets, to limit the danger to the brain from electromagnetic radiation, Rosalyne Bachelot, the Health Minister, said.

The measures, which emerged from a six-week review of mobile phone and wi-fi radiation, have been attacked as inadequate by campaigners who accuse the State of playing down dangers from phones and transmitter masts. The campaign groups, which walked out on the government consultation on Monday, wanted a ban on mobile use by children under 14 and drastic measures to limit the power and location of masts.

The Government refused to act against masts, citing the absence of any evidence that they affected human or animal health. Experiments are to be carried out in three cities to test the feasibility of reducing the power of transmissions.

The Government will limit children’s use of mobile phones pending the results of international and French studies in the autumn. The Education Ministry is to issue a decree on the primary school ban. At the moment most French schools bar the use of mobile phones only in classrooms. The Government and telephone operators have been thrown on the defensive by hundreds of groups around the country that are demanding the removal of phone masts near schools, hospitals and homes.

Radiation is commonly blamed for insomnia, headaches, fatigue and cancer. Libraries and other public spaces in several cities have switched off wi-fi internet after reports that the radio waves were harmful.

The operators are especially alarmed by court orders to remove phone transmitters, despite the absence of evidence that they cause harm. The appeal court in Versailles shocked the industry in February when it ordered Bouygues, one of the three French operators, to dismantle a mast at Tassin la Demi-Lune near Lyons because families there feared for their health. The judges acknowledged that there was no existing evidence of a threat but there was no guarantee that a risk did not exist. The “feeling of anxiety” of the inhabitants was therefore justified, they said.

Their reasoning is known as the “principle of precaution”, a doctrine proclaimed by the Socialist Government in the 1990s as an argument for refusing to import British beef after it had been declared safe. The principle, which is also behind France’s rejection of genetically modified crops, is deplored by scientists and ministers in President Sarkozy’s Government as a brake on innovation.

Martin Bouygues, whose family owns the telephone operator, said that the State must decide “whether it wants mobile telephones or not”. Fear of unproven dangers risks taking France back to the Middle Ages, Jean de Kervasdoué, a former national director of French hospitals, said. “It’s dangerous thinking . . . like the medieval inquisitors who demanded that heretics prove their innocence. You cannot always prove your innocence.”

 http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6366590.ece

 

Ranskan suunnitelma lailla rajoittaa matkapuhelinten myyntiä ja markkinointia lapsille:

 http://business.theage.com.au/business/france-proposes-banning-mobile-sales-to-children-20090108-7c61.html

Euroopan parlamentti

Euroopan parlamentin päätöslauselma 2.4.2009
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/expert/infopress_page/066-53234-091-04-14-911-20090401IPR53233-01-04-2009-2009-false/default_en.htm

Press release 2.4.2009 Avoiding potential risks of electromagnetic fields
Antennas, mobile phone masts and other electromagnetic emitting devices should be set within a specific distance from schools and health institutions, according to a report adopted by the European Parliament. The Commission should make more reliable information available about the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields to citizens who feel that they are not well informed. The report was adopted with 559 votes in favour, 22 against and 8 abstentions. (Jäsenten ja valiokuntien jättämistä päätöslauselmaesityksistä ja mietinnöistä äänestetään parlamentin täysistunnossa, joko keskustelun jälkeen tai ilman keskustelua. Lopulliset hyväksytyt tekstit julkaistaan ja lähetetään asianomaisille tahoille.)

Euroopan parlamentin päätöslauselma 2. huhtikuuta 2009 sähkömagneettisiin kenttiin liittyvistä terveyshaitoista:
 http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2009-0216+0+DOC+XML+V0//FI&language=FI

Englanniksi: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2009-0216+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN

Euroopan parlamentin rapotti: Report on health concerns associated with electromagnetic fields (A6-0089/2009)
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A6-2009-0089+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN

Man-made  electromagnetic fields: are we at risk (article 31.3.2009)
http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/public/story_page/066-52826-089-03-14-911-20090326STO52724-2009-30-03-2009/default_en.htm

Euroopan Parlamentin kommentti mobiililaitteiden ja tukiasemien liian suurista tehoista ja ICNIRP-raja-arvojen riittämättömyydestä:
http://www.marketwire.com/press-release/The-Bioinitiative-Working-Group-901580.html

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-2008-0410+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN

(katso kohdat 21-23)

European Parliament (2009) Avoiding potential risks of electromagnetic fields

Antennas, mobile phone masts and other electromagnetic emitting devices should be set within a specific distance from schools and health institutions, according to a report adopted by the European Parliament. The Commission should make more reliable information available about the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields to citizens who feel that they are not well informed. The report was adopted with 559 votes in favour, 22 against and 8 abstentions.”

http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/expert/infopress_page/066-53234-091-04-14-911-20090401IPR53233-01-04-2009-2009-false/default_en.htm

Video: http://www.europarltv.europa.eu/yourParliament.aspx?action=view&PackageId=dc2851a5-d4d7-48b7-9769-ecc7e37e3a6b