Research plan 2005-2009

Application to the Academy of Finland

Research Plan 2005-2009

Baby Boomers’ Generational Transmissions in Finland (Gentrans)

J.P. Roos  (main applicant)

Department of Social Policy, University of Helsinki


Background of the Gentrans project

Theoretical framework of the study

Research aims and objectives

Data and methods

Ethical aspects


International networks and resources

Results, dissemination and timetable of the project



Relevant publications of senior researchers:
Haavio-Mannila, Karisto, Roos, Rotkirch

Background of the GENTRANS project. There is widespread concern about the situation of the baby boomers both in Finland and elsewhere in Europe. (The term is understood somewhat differently in different countries; for Finland, we refer mainly to the cohort born between 1945 and 1950, although empirical data will be collected on a broader segment.) Baby boomers are expected to retire during the first and second decades of the third millennium. What will happen then? How will their care relationships and other activities develop? They will be relatively wealthy and part of their pensions will be used to help their children and grandchildren as well as for their own benefit. On the other hand, their parents are in many cases still alive, which may help the baby boomers, but also require their help. This has led some authors to speak of baby-boomers as a “sandwich generation”. We prefer to use the term “pivot generation”: the baby boomers have formed a great divide between the generations born before and generations born after. When they leave the scene, society will not be the same.

What baby boomers engage in will affect the whole of society in many ways. Most of the problems now facing the Finnish society – the pension bomb, shortage of new employees, the needs for social services and health care, the worsening of the demographic dependency ratio, gender divisions of care work, etc.  – are strongly affected by the actions of baby boomers. So far, the welfare state has been able to grow in size and scope much due to the fact that the population in working age has grown consistently since the 1950s. In the near future, demographic ageing turns this situation around and demographic dependency ratios start to decline when the size of the working population shrinks. Finland is now at the threshold of this demographic divide, and the baby boomers are among the main agents in how it will be socially realised. According to various population scenarios by Eurostat and UN, ageing of society is above all a European phenomenon, and in Europe most rapid in Finland (Kautto 2004). This makes Finland an extremely interesting setting for the research project.

There are several possible scenarios. First, it is possible that the baby boomers, when entering their “third age”, will behave extremely “selfishly” and focus on individual consumption: recreation, education, health, travel etc. services. We already know, for instance, that the baby boomers did not create a new baby boom, but a pet boom (the number of dogs reached record levels when just the baby boomers were expected to have their babies). They may now continue wage working much longer, keep their apartments and not significantly increase help towards their offspring or their parents. They can move back to their old home communities or abroad, until they become so ill that they want to return to Finland to be taken care of in their own language.

An alternative scenario is that that the baby boomers devote much time and resources to their children and grandchildren, continue to take care of their own parents as well, redirect much of their incomes to the benefit of the younger generations (providing financial support, buying them apartments, helping with child care). The latter scenario implies that the welfare state gets much indirect support from the baby boomer generation. It is possible that the children will pay in kind, and help their parents when they need it, but it is more probable that the children will instead expect society to take most of the responsibility for their parents.

The latter scenario worries many observers in the Nordic countries, not least from the point of view of social and gender equality. In the Nordic welfare state, the role of the family has been seen as secondary to the society. Social networks are formed around singles, couples, and couples with children (Castrén 2000) and periods of the life course spent living alone or with a partner are comparatively long (Haavio-Mannila & Rotkirch 2004). In Eastern and Southern Europe, the extended family is more involved in daily activities, which generates greater emotional proximity but also more conflicts. In the Nordic countries the family is smaller but its importance is visible e.g. in times of crisis.  (Todd 1996.)

Prediction of future generational transmission is complicated by the emergence of new family constellations. What happens in “new” families with children who have different sets of parents and step-parents? Increased longevity means that there are more – up to four – possible generations involved in every case. Finally, increased migration means that generational transmissions more often happen in a transnational context (cf Zechner 2002; transnational care forms are the topic of two of our PhD-students).

What will happen if the welfare state is cut back significantly? We may assume that it would highlight the importance of family and generational chains. The question has been raised early in Finland (see e.g. Sukupolvien välinen tulonjako 1994) but answers are so far inconclusive. The models used are based on assumptions, the realism of which can be questioned. We thus have relatively good statistics to estimate the future incomes of different cohorts, but we lack information on the secondary and informal income divisions between generations. And we have little knowledge about the actual material and symbolic transmissions between generations.

In the EU Midlife-project proposal it is expected that the baby boom generation as a whole probably will enter old age in a better economic position than their parents’, although there are some considerable within-generational variation and between-country differences. Baby boomers current expectations towards public support in all phases of the life course appear to be persistently in line with the high value they attach to the European social model. Cohort comparisons also indicate that baby boomers had accumulated more wealth as young adults than their same-sex parents at every stage of the life course and also experienced more upward wealth mobility. In Finland, until at least the 1990’s, later generations always reached a better position faster than the earlier generations had (in education, job positions, housing etc). (Sukupolvien välinen tulonjako 1994, 64-66).

The Finnish baby boomers differ to some extent from their Central European counterparts (in addition to the fact that the “boom” period was shorter). This concerns especially the fact that the baby boomer’s aging coincides with a fundamental structural change from agrarian to a modern service society. Finnish baby boomers have their “feet” in a very traditional society and their heads in an extremely modern society. Also in this sense they are a real pivot generation.

Theoretical framework of the study

This study is based on a two-pronged theoretical fundament. On the one hand it develops research on generations and the family (including our own previous research, see Publications list of the participants) On the other hand part of the research group specifically concentrates on giving, reciprocity and altruism, and sibling as well as parent-children conflicts.

There is a relatively strong research tradition on the question of what happens to the relations between parents and children, including grand-children in the modern society (Hill 1970, Attias-Donfut 1988, Chauvel 2002, Kohli-Szydlik 2000, Moen 2001, Therborn 2004).

Still, this research is often ignored in general sociological theory and public opinion. As Claudine Attias-Donfut and Martine Segalen (1998, 13) point out, in the world conference on women in Peking in 1995, there was no mention at all of the role of grand-parents, and the debate was centred on the conflict between work and family, perceived in a limited nuclear sense. The main reason for this is the hypothesis of modernisation and individualisation of the family: the contacts between the members of the extended family but also between parents and children are supposed to have weakened, almost to the extent that the concept of generational transmission has lost its relevance. However, there is research evidence questioning this thesis (Attias-Donfut, Lapierre & Segalen 2002, Attias-Donfut 1995; see also Godard 1992 who discussed the family from the point of view of generational transmissions and Trifiletti et al. 2003).

In the French study, the main interest was to study the extensive transmissions between three generations or what is called the new family spirit. There are also important connections between generations which also may translate into dependencies. One can distinguish between extreme individualism and formal relationships on the one hand and altruism and informal contacts, which may be very dependence engendering, on the other (Attias-Donfut et al 2002, 267).

Several studies have focussed on representations or constructions of the family as a social institution, its modernisation or genealogy (Lenoir 2003; Jallinoja 2000). By contrast, for us, family is not primarily a legal or social construct but a highly context-sensitive biosocial institution based on kin relationship. We understand the family as a system extending beyond the nuclear family to comprise at least three generations. As W.W. Skinner (1997, 54) defines it, family systems refers to “preferred patterns of family practices and household dynamics” and incorporates “marriage form(s) and preferences, succession, the transmission of property, the normal sequence of coresidential arrangements, the normative roles associated with family statuses and relationships, and the customary bias by gender and relative age that informs the system as a whole”.

To this anthropological approach we add the crucial interaction between family systems and the welfare state. For a lineage of three or even four generations, the welfare state plays a different role; family members have very different positions as financers and consumers. This position affects their everyday life, but it also has consequences for relations between family members and between generations. An analysis of family relationships and reciprocity thus gains from a simultaneous analysis concerning the functioning of the welfare state vis-à-vis different generations.

Theoretically, the anticipated change in relative sizes of welfare generations has given rise to the hypothesis on generation conflict (Bengtson & Achenbaum 1993). Interestingly, the generation conflict -thesis has mostly been debated in countries with a comparatively weak welfare state such as the USA. One could imagine that in relatively large welfare states, where financing of pension expenditures and other welfare state functions is based on an unwritten generation contract, such conflict debate could be even more pronounced. However, this seems not to be the case, and one possible sociological explanation is that the welfare state is more deeply rooted in the everyday lives of the population, and that family members are adjusting their behaviour to this change. This would underline strong ties between generations rather than a conflict. An unsolved question is the role of the welfare state in these ties. Does a large welfare state promote ties between generations or rather lead to growing conflicts between generations? It could also be that the size of the welfare state is less relevant than the structure, ie. the design of transfers, their financing rules and the rules governing provision of services.

In our view, it is wrong to talk about any explicit “generational contract” between, say, baby boomers and the next generation after them (in Finland called variously welfare generation or suburban generation). At most, there are some political and social rules of conduct expressed in laws or agreements. The fact that every person who has worked or lived in a country is entitled to a pension does not in our view amount to a generational contract. The problem is rather about inequity between generations than a contract (see Kohli 2005).

Attias-Donfut (1995, 22) presents different models of assistance relationships: assistance between rich parents and rich children, assistance from rich to poor (may go from rich parents to poor children or rich children to poor parents) and finally assistance between two poor people. Until now, the most typical form of assistance has been from rich to rich and from poor to poor. In future we expect to see more of the model where poor relatives become richer or where relatively well off children exploit their poor parents

Care is in the centre of generational transmissions. Today, care of close relatives is being supported (not very generously) by society and competes with professional care. Such intensive care arrangements are increasing and raise sensitive questions. An (adult) child may find it difficult to change diapers and other intimate acts supposed to belong to the professional care of the elderly (handling of excrements is typically the limit between professional caring and care of relatives). Usually, care of elderly parents consists of a combination of kin and socially provided services. (Trifiletti et al. 2003.) As a result of the feminization the welfare state (Anttonen 1990) this means that women take care of the elderly both as family members and as professionals.

Generational care and assistance relationships are usually clearly gendered. As Martine Segalen (1995, 39) notes, the individuals most solicited are 50 year old women: on their shoulders falls the main responsibility both towards the children and the parents, even those of the man (husband).   The chain is more often than not a chain between women, even though end recipients are often men, even in the supposedly gender equal Nordic countries (Ellingsaeter & Leira 2004 ).

The second theoretical aspect is specially concerned with giving, reciprocity and altruism, and sibling as well as parent-children conflicts. In friendship and many kin interactions, giving is normally related with an expectation of reciprocity, of a “tit for tat”. This is partly true also in family relationships. However, degrees of relatedness and perceived proximity may alter these expectations towards more altruistic behaviour. Generations do not help each other abstractly, or due to legalistic obligations, but on the basis of complex patterns of emotions, sense of family, morality, and perceived need for and possibility of care provision. We shall consequently consider family relationships by incorporating evolutionary theory, as a step towards multidisciplinary, integrated study of human behaviour (Boyer 2005; Sanderson 2001).

We often think that giving – money, or care – is something that takes place without reciprocity. This is also the Kantian perspective on giving. However, when it comes to families and relatives, the situation is radically different. Most parents find it natural to support their children and the children feel certain obligations towards their parents.  They also expect to inherit their parents or grandparents.  To understand the difference between relatives and others, it suffices to think of obligations towards friends as compared to the children. You may like your friends more than your parents or children, but you normally would not expect to inherit them or to give them your property. (Friendship is, especially in its current Northern European form, inimical to all kinds of financial relationships.)

Questions related to altruistic giving relationships relate to evolved moral and cognitive dispositions (Westermarck 1970; Trivers 1971/2002; Hrdy 1999). The evolutionary approach to family studies is based on intense theoretical and empirical research on kin selection and the gender system. The theory predicts that the closer the actual kin relationship is (i.e. the closer people have reason to believe they are genetically) the more they will be inclined to help each other (Sarmaja 2003). In most species, there also exists an inherent conflict between parents and offspring (Trivers 1972/2002): Parents are prepared to invest enormously in their children, but not without limits, whereas the children tend to present “endless” demands and monitor for possible preference of other siblings. There is also the question of equality: a parent may not usually concentrate on giving to only one child. But he/she may consider which child is most needy and regard equality as the end result. This may, however produce negative reactions among the other children. It is interesting to study these patterns and justifications of giving, also in relation to matri- and patrilineal kin affiliations and to sex preferences. Thus conflicts and also exceptions to the dominant norms, e.g. considering inheritance, are interesting to contextualise and analyse.

Between relatives, inheritance defines closeness of the family relationship. Normally you do not inherit very distant relatives (and this is discouraged by the inheritance laws). Also, it is important to note that property ownership, including inheritance, has become common in the egalitarian, highly developed Nordic countries. Who inherits, and what, is thus a relevant research question, whereas previously it was interesting mostly for the study of the upper class. Nowadays it touches one half of the Finnish population. According to property ownership statistics, the upper half of the households owns in practice all valuable property in the country, not counting housing.  On the other hand, more often than not, inheritance means trouble and stress: how to dispose of all the bric à brac that the previous generation has amassed? Inheritance is also often connected with sibling rivalry and conflict.

Research aims and objectives

Our main research question is thus: what happens to the Finnish baby boomer’s family relations and what kinds of relationships (care, economic, emotional and interaction) between different family members will develop during the 21st century?  Following international examples (Bengtson-Giarrusso 1995), we will plan the study so, that it can be repeated several times and that it thus is possible to follow the baby boomers from ripe age (and via their life stories, from their childhood) to their death, as well as follow their children from early adulthood to old age. At this stage, we will take as our starting point the years 2005-2010 but we expect that the study will follow the same subjects several decades.

We focus on the following questions:

–         How do baby boomers help/have helped their parents and what help do/did they get from them?  The same questions are asked concerning their children as well for the interactions between children and parents of the baby boomers.

–         How intense are the contacts between them and what is their nature (egalitarian, authoritarian, intimate, formal)?

–         What are the realised or potential inheritances and expectations related to this?

–         How are social benefits interacting with forms of informal generational interaction? How are transnational care settings affecting these interactions?

–         Are there specific gendered and kin patterns in these generational transmissions? For instance, are matrilineal forms of help stronger in some milieus and patrilineal in others? Is their evidence of son or daughter preference and in what situations?

Data and methods

1. We shall conduct a new interview study, partly in connection with the proposed EU project (if successful). We first select a sample of  200-300  families in which at least one member was born in 1945-50 and interview them personally. Then we interview selected members of previous and following generations belonging to these families. The total number of inteviewees will be about 1,000.

The questionnaire will include items related to helping and emotional relations between family members, other dependencies, unofficial gifts, loans, guarantees etc. We also investigate taking care of parents and/or children, giving advice, taking advice, conflicts and ways of keeping distance etc..

The sampled people will be asked for permission to continue the research for several successive steps at 5-10-year intervals. The interviews will probably be conducted by Statistics Finland which can choose a representative random sample of the population register data. An additional advantage Statistics Finland is that interviews can be directly connected to register data. We have earlier conducted several surveys with Statistics Finland and trust on the quality of its work.

2. Life history interviews with selected people participating in the survey. Here we follow the model of Attias-Donfut and the approach used by several of us in our previous research. It has been shown that combining intense qualitative data in combination with quantitative data is extremely fruitful.

3. Repeated life course studies

3.1. We (Haavio-Mannila, Karisto, Roos, and Purhonen) have participated in a survey on Life course of Finns (Suomalaisen elämänkulku) in 1998. Here we propose a replication of this study.

The number of respondents for the earlier survey was 2,628. The response rate was 59 percent. The age distribution was unbiased compared to the population. Those born between 1935 and 1970 formed the population for the survey. A partition into three age groups formed the basis for data collection; the focus group (the baby boomers, born in 1945-1950) was disproportionately represented in the sample. In this study, we asked whether the respondents would be willing to participate in a repeat survey. The questions would be partially new.

3.2. Data from the longitudinal study “Ikihyvä Päijät-Häme” in Middle-Finland will also be used. The regional survey data on ageing processes of three birth cohorts (1946-50, 1936-40 and 1926-30) was collected in 2002. The number of respondents was 2,824; 1,371 of them were baby boomers. A representative sample of people living in the city of Lahti and its surroundings will be surveyed every third year. This data is highly relevant for our study on transmissions between generations.

3.3. Life events and family forms of baby boomers can be followed on the basis of sex surveys conducted in Finland in 1971, 1992 and 1999.. Questions used in these national, representative surveys can be repeated in the new survey. The number of respondents born in 1945-50 was 543 in 1971, 254 in 1992 and 198 in 199. The total data set includes 1,299 people born in 1917-30. They can be considered to belong to the parental generation of the baby boomers. In addition, 396 people born in 1970-81 represent their children’s generation.

4. We attempt to create a longitudinal follow-up data bank for which same information can be collected at different points of time from official registers. This information would involve data on taxable gifts, taxable inheritance, house and property ownership etc. The source is official tax and population registers. We are aware of the strict legal restrictions in the use personal register data.

5. Surveys by Statistics Finland, especially  Household Budget Survey (Kotitaloustiedustelu) and Time Use Survey (Ajankäyttötutkimus), include questions on exchanges between family members.

As methods, we will use, on the one hand, standard quantitative analysis techniques, for example, cross-tabulation, EDA, log linear models, and correspondence analysis, and on the other hand,  techniques for qualitative analysis of large text sets using standard program packages (e.g. Atlas) to generate life history models. The team has long and many-sided experience in various research methods.

Ethical aspects

In all the data collection, there arise important ethical aspects. We shall submit the research proposal to an Ethical committee of a relevant research unit (Stakes). Especially important are questions relative to informed consent, creation of a research register and linking of different sensitive registers.  We shall try to make it sure that the participants know all the foreseeable consequences of the research and are able to follow the progress of the study. The participants may withdraw from the study at any time. Continuity of research presupposes also considerations concerning publication of results.


Senior researchers

Professor J. P. Roos  is the Head of the Project. He has been involved for a long time in research about ways of life, life stories and generations. During the academic year 2005-2006 senior Academy Researcher on the topic of evolutionary sociology. He will be responsible for the general direction of the project and will be involved both in the carrying out of the data collection , analysis, and theoretical discussion

Professor Emerita Elina Haavio-Mannila is one of the world’s leading family and sex life researchers. She has published extensively and is extremely experienced in both conducting and analysing survey data, in addition to several studies using qualitative data. Her aim in the larger project is to investigate the impact of the family life events and style in youth and adulthood on family interaction in older age using both earlier sex and life course surveys and the new survey. She also has a huge corpus of autobiographical data from the 1990s which can be compared with the new life history qualitative data.

Professor Antti Karisto has experience in research in health and well-being. Recently he has specialized in the questions of  the “third age” and aging of the baby boomer generation. He also has a project of post-retirement migration (Finnish pensioners living in Spain). In the present project he will be involved in data collection and the combination and repeating of previous surveys. He will then proceed to write especially on aging and the baby boomers.

Docent Anna Rotkirch has specialised on comparative studies of families and sexuality. She has done autobiographical research on generational interaction especially with regards to parenting and grand parenting and the gendered divisions of care. She has also written about feminist and evolutionary theory and her last project dealt with transnational families in Finland and France.

Special resource persons:

These persons have agreed to participate in the project in the following way: they will be consulted about the design and collection of the data, they will participate in project meetings, and they will write articles based on the data collected, in their specific areas of interest. These areas are all relevant to the basic research questions

Docent Mikko Kautto, head of welfare research at Stakes, is a specialist on comparative studies in welfare states and in the future of the welfare state from the point of view of the demographic dependency ratios and the generational contract.

Docent Matti Kari, specialist in EU questions and EU social policy. Will study especially questions related to the EU pension policy and the baby boomers

Dr Ilkka Haapola, specialist in using longitudinal registers data and has a good experience of the Ikihyvä Päivät-Häme project. Will work together with Antti Karisto on the above-mentioned project, as well as with the register data.

MA Heikki Sarmaja, is the foremost specialist on evolution theory and Westermarck, will help us develop theoretical perspectives on the questions of altruism and kin relationships, will finish his PhD thesis on Westermarck and evolution theory next year and then work together with us in developing and analysing the theoretical results

MA Semi Purhonen, is in the final stage of a thesis on the baby boomer generation which covers both broad empirical analysis and novel developments of the Mannheimian generation theory. After completion of thesis he will participate in the analysis of both the quantitative and qualitative data.

PhD Students

MA Heli Hyvönen is since 2005 working on a thesis on mothering among immigrant women in two settings: Finns in Estonia and Estonians in Finland. She is especially interested in how transnational social bounds and national social policies affect motherhood and other social and kin relations.

MA, MS Markus Jokela, psychologist whose specific area is behavioural genetics, but who will later expand his research into psychological well-being, and is thus instrumental in the connections between GENINT and MIDLIFE.

MA Kaarina Määttä, a young, promising graduate student whose master’s thesis on the green generation in Finland showed high level of talent. She will study the relationships between the baby boomer generation and its generational followers.

MA (Sorbonne) Kostas Tassopoulos is working on a thesis about Greek men married to Finnish women. His study will throw light on the specificities of the Finnish family orientation and cultural differences between parent-child relationships.

Additionally, we shall recruit two-three promising PhD students from social policy or sociology.

International networks and resources

We are part of a proposed EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STRP) 7th priority application, which has been developed independently but which is very closely related to our objectives, Midlife. If it will be accepted, we shall be responsible for so-called consensus conferences in which baby boomers will discuss their life situation. The project involves research teams from Italy, Belgium, Slovenia, Hungary and Bulgaria. The head of the project is Professor Raimondo Cagiano de Azavedo, University of Rome La Sapienza.

Additional international  networks

Claudine Attias-Donfut, Director of research at CNAV, has for a long time conducted studies on generational transmissions and developed a methodology of pivot generation which we shall put into use. She is head of a French network of generation research.

Professor Ulla Björnberg, has a similar project in Sweden and we interact in many possible ways, including in the RN Families and Intimate Lives of the European Sociological Association.

Professor Martin Kohli is one of leading researchers in the field. He has also developed the methodology . J.P. Roos has had a long cooperative relationship with him, and he has agreed to take part as a resource person. Kohli has collected an extensive survey on German aging.

Professor Göran Therborn is involved via his project on the global family history. He has agreed to function as a resource person especially concerning international comparisons.

Docent Daniel Bertaux, director of research at CNRS,  is the pioneer on life history researched and has developed a family research methodology which can be applied here.  He is a close colleague to many of us and a Docent at the Department of Social Policy.

Results, dissemination and timetable

The project will result in the following types of publications

  1. Several PhD theses, at least 6 of which will be written inside the project and 2 of which will be  relevant for the project (Purhonen, Sarmaja) although they are not part of the project.
  2. Separate and joint publications (articles, book chapters) by the participants which will first be presented as conference papers. This will take place as a continuous process.
  3. One or more books on the problem, both in English and in Finnish, both relative to the main problem and the specific themes.
  4. The main results will be published in English, in a joint volume containing the articles of all the participants.

We expect also that the independent partners of the project will use the material in their research and will participate in joint articles.

Timetable:  The proposed new surveys will be carried out during 2006-2007. A repeat of the Elämänkulku-survey will take place independently of the project, as will the Ikihyvä-survey. The first rounds of life story interviews are carried out in 2007.  The analysis and first reports will be done in 2007-2008. Final publication in the form of edited books in English and Finnish will be published in 2008-2009.

Bibliography which has been used in preparation of the research plan


Anttonen, Anneli (1990): The feminization of the Scandinavian welfare state. In Leila Simonen (ed.): Finnish Debates on Women’s Studies. Tampere: University of Tampere, 3-25.

Attias-Donfut, C.& M.Segalen (1998): Les Grands-Parents. La famille à travers des générations. Paris: Odile Jacob.

Attias-Donfut, Claudine (1988) : Sociologie des générations. Paris: Puf .

Attias-Donfut, Claudine (ed., 1995): Les solidarités entre les générations. Vieillesse, familles, état. Essais et Recherches. Paris: Nathan.

Attias-Donfut, Claudine (1995): Le double circuit des transmissions, in Attias-Donfut (ed.) 1995.

Attias-Donfut, Claudine, Nicole Lapierre & Martine Segalen (2002): Le nouvel ésprit de famille.  Paris: Odile Jacob.

Bengtson, V.L. & W.A. Achenbaum W.A. (1993) The New Generational Conflict. New York: Aldine.

Bengtson, V.& R.Giarrusso (1995): Effets a long terme du lien filial, in Attias-Donfut 1995.

Bertaux, D.& P.Thompson (1993): Between Generations. Family Models, Myths and Memories. International Yearbook of Oral History & Life Stories II. New York: Oxford University Press.

Boyer, Pascal (2005) Ten Problems for Integrated Behavioural Science: How to Make the Social Sciences Relevant.  Global Fellow Seminar Paper no 7, University of California, Los Angeles URL

Brown, Donald E. (1991): Human universals. New York: McGraw Hill.

Castrén, Anna-Maija (2001): Perhe ja työ Helsingissä ja Pietarissa. Elämänpiirit ja yhteiskunta opettajien sosiaalisissa verkostoissa. (Family and work in Helsinki and St. Petersburg. Life spheres and society in the social networks of teachers). SKS tutkimuksia 81. Helsinki: SKS.

Chauvel, Louis (2002): Le destin des générations, structure sociale et cohortes en France au XXe siècle, Paris: Presse Universitaire Francaise.

Cronk, Lee (1999): That Complex Whole. Culture and the Evolution of Human Behavior. London: Westview.

Ellingsæter, Anne Lise & Arnlaug Leira (red., 2004): Velferdsstaten og familien: utfordringer og dilemmaer (Welfare state and the family: Demands ans dilemmas).  Oslo: Gyldendal.

Godard, Francis (1992): La famille. Affaire des générations. Paris: PUF.

Haavio-Mannila, E.& A.Rotkirch (2004) ”Ydin- ja versoperheet Suomessa ja Pietarissa”. Teoksessa R.Alapuro & I.Arminen (toim.) Vertailevan tutkimuksen ulottuvuuksia. Helsinki: WSOY, 165-182.

Hill, Reuben (1970): Family Development in Three Generations; A Longitudinal Study of Changing Family Patterns of Planning and Achievement. Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman..

Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer (1999): Mother Nature: A History Of Mothers Infants,and Natural Selection. New York: Pantheon.

Jallinoja, Riitta (2000): Perheen aika. Helsinki: Otava.

Jokela, Markus (2005): Geenit jälkitraditionaalisessa yhteiskunnassa. Sosiologia 1. 2005, 4-18.

Kautto, Mikko & Matti Heikkilä (2004) Finnish Welfare Facing the New Millennium, in Heikkilä and Kautto (eds) Welfare in Finland, 227-233. Helsinki: Stakes.

Kautto, Mikko (ed. 2004): Finland for people of all ages. Government report on the future. Publications of the Prime Minister’s Office, Finland 34/2004.

Kohli, Martin & Marc Szydlik (2000): Generationen in Familie und Gesellschaft. Opladen: Leske + Budrich.

Kohli, Martin (1999): Private and public transfers between generations. Linking the family and the state. European Societies 1/1999, 81-104.

Kohli, Martin (2005): Generational changes and generational equity.  M. Johnson, V.L. Bengtson, P. Coleman & T. Kirkwood (eds): The Cambridge Handbook of Age and Ageing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Koskinen, Simo: Sukupolvien välinen sopimus vai sota? Signaaleja. Stakesin tulevaisuusraportti 2005, 1/2005, 18-22.

Lenoi, Remi (2003): Généalogie de la morale familiale. Paris : Collection Liber, Seuil.

MIDLIFE Project (2005): The ageing of the baby-boom generation; impact of life course experiences and expectations on life chances in old age. EU STRP Priority 7 Application 30, March.

Moen, Phyllis (2001): Constructing a life course. Marriage & Family Review 30, 4, 97 – 109.

Richards, Janet Radcliffe (2000): Human Nature after Darwin. A Philosophical Introduction. London: Routledge.

Sanderson, S. K. (2001): The Evolution of Human Sociality: A Darwinian Conflict Perspective. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Sarmaja, H.(2003): Ihmislajin perheenmuodostuksen evoluutiopsykologinen perusta. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka 68, 223–243.

Segalen, Martine (1995): Continuités et discontinuités familiales: Approche socio-historique du lien intergénérationnel, in Attias Donfut ed. 1995.

Skinner, W.W. (1997): Family systems and demographic processes. In D.I.Kertzer & T.Fricke (eds) Anthropolocial Demography – Towards a New Synthesis, 53-95. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sukupolvien välinen tulonjako (1994). Valtioneuvoston kanslian julkaisuja 3. Helsinki.

Therborn, Göran (2004): Between Sex and Power. Family in the World, 1900-2000. London: Routledge.

Todd, Emmanuel (1996): L’Invention de l’Europe. Paris: Editions du Seuil.

Trifiletto R., S. Simoni & A. Pratesi (2003): Work and care in double front carer families, a qualitative comparison of care arrangements in Finland, France, Italy, Portugal and the UK. SOCCARE project, European Commission URL

Trivers, Robert (1971/2002): The evolution of reciprocal altruism, republished in Natural selection and social theory: Selected papers of Robert Trivers, 18-51. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Trivers, Robert (1972/2002): Parent-offspring conflict, republished in Natural selection and social theory: Selected papers of Robert Trivers, 129-151. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Westermarck, Edward (1936/1970): The Future of Marriage in Western Civilisation, New York: Freeport, Books for Libraries Press.

Zechner, Minna (2003): Care arrangements in immigrant families. SOCCARE project, European Commission URL

Publications list of the participants (publications related to the project; see also respective CVs)

Elina Haavio-Mannila

Kontula, Osmo & Elina Haavio-Mannila: Suomalainen seksi. Tietoa suomalaisten sukupuolielämän muutoksesta. Helsinki: WSOY 1993.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina & Osmo Kontula “Suomalaisten sukupuolikäyttäytymisen muutoksia 1971-1992”. Sosiologia 30, 1993, 186-199.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina & Osmo Kontula “Sexual behavior changes in Finland during the last 20 years.” Nordisk Sexologi 12, 3, 1994, 196-214.

Kontula, Osmo & Elina Haavio-Mannila: Sexual Pleasures – Enhancement of Sex Life in Finland, 1971-1992. Aldershot: Dartmouth 1995.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina, Jeja P Roos & Osmo Kontula ”Familienorienterung,   Liberalisierung und Ambivalenz im Sexualleben dreier Generationen in Finland”. In Bernhard Nauck und Corinna Onnen-Isemann (Hrsg) Familie im Brennpunkt von Wissenschaft und Forshung. Berlin: Hermann Luchterhand 1995, 399-418.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina, J.P. Roos & Osmo Kontula “Repression,  revolution and ambivalence. The sexual life of three generations”. Acta Sociologica 39, 4, 1996, 409-430.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina, J.P. Roos & Osmo Kontula “Pidättyvyyttä, vallankumousta ja ambivalenssia: Kolmen sukupolven seksielämä”. Alkoholipolitiikka 62, 1, 1997, 13-28.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina &Anna Rotkirch “Generational and gender differences in sexual life in St. Petersburg and urban Finland”. Yearbook of Population research in Finland XXXIV. Helsinki: The Population Research Institute, The Family Federation of Finland 1997, 133-160.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina ”Seksuaalisuus ja ikääntyminen”. Teoksessa Jarmo Heinonen (toim.) Senioriteetti voimavarana. Helsinki: Gaudeamus 1998, 105-119.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina & J. P. Roos “Pidättyvyyden polven naisten ja miesten rakkaustyylejä”. Teoksessa MattiHyvärinen, Eeva Peltonen & Anni Vilkko (toim.) Liikkuvat erot – sukupuoli elämäkertatutkimuksessa. Tampere: Vastapaino 1998, 239-272.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina & J. P. Roos “Love stories in sexual autobiographies”. In Ruthellen Josselson & Amia Lieblich (Eds) Making Meaning of Narratives, The Narrative Study of Lives 6. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage 1999, 239-274.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina, J. P. Roos & Anna Rotkirch ”Rakkaustyylit suomalaisissa, virolaisissa ja pietarilaisissa seksuaalielämäkerroissa”. Teoksessa Juha Kinnunen, Pirkko Meriläinen, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen & Tiina Nyberg (toim.) Terveystieteiden monialainen tutkimus ja yliopistokoulutus. Kuopio: Kuopion yliopiston julkaisuja E. Yhteiskuntatieteet 74 1999, 143-159.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina, Osmo Kontula & Anna Rotkirch: Sexual Lifestyles in the Twentieth Century. A Research Study. Houndmills, Basingbroke, Hampshire, New York: Palgrave 2002.

Kontula, Osmo, Elina Haavio-Mannila & Anna Rotkirch ”Sexuelle Lebensstile in drei Generationen. Eine Analyse autobiographisher Geschichten über Sexualität und Beziehung”.  Zeitschrift für Sexualforshung, 16, 2003, 143-159, 2003. Haavio-Mannila, E., O. Kontula (2003), Sexual Trends in the Baltic Area. Publications of the Population Research Institute, Series D 41/2003, Helsinki: The Family Federation of Finland 2003.

Roos, J. P., Anna Rotkirch & Elina Haavio-Mannila “Do rich men have most sex? Gender, capital and sexual activity in four countries”. In Anna-Karin Kollind & Abby Peterson (Eds) Thoughts on Family, Gender, Generation and Class. A Festschrift to Ulla Björnberg. Research Report 133, Department of Sociology, Göteborg University 2003, 133-156.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina,  J. P. Roos & Anna Rotkirch ”Olivatko suuret ikäluokat murroksen moottoreita? Sukupolven, periodin ja iän erittelyä seksin, politiikan ja vapaa-ajan suhteen”. Teoksessa Jani Erola & Terhi-Anna Wilska (toim.) Yhteiskunnan moottori vai kivireki?. Jyväskylä: SoPhi 92. Kopijyvä Oy. 2004, 215-238.

Haavio-Mannila, Elina & Anna Rotkirch ”Ydin- ja versoperheet Suomessa ja Pietarissa”. Teoksessa Risto Alapuro & Ilkka Arminen (toim.) Vertailevan tutkimuksen ulottuvuuksia. Helsinki: WSOY 2004, 165-182.

Antti Karisto

Antti Karisto: Hyvinvoinnin monet ulottuvuudet. Sosiologia 5-6/1976.

Antti Karisto: Hyvinvointi ja sairauden ongelma. Suomea ja muita Pohjoismaita vertaileva tutkimus sairastavuuden väestöryhmittäisistä eroista ja sairaudesta hyvinvoinnin vajeena. Kansaneläkelaitoksen julkaisuja M: 46, Helsinki 1984.

Eero Lahelma, Antti Karisto, Kristiina Manderbacka ja Ossi Rahkonen: Sairastavuus ja sosiaaliluokka Suomessa, Ruotsissa ja Norjassa. Suomen Lääkärilehti 46 (1991): 2433-2437.

Antti Karisto & Ritva Prättälä & Mari-Anna Berg: Hyvät, pahat ja rumat? Epäterveellisten elintapojen kasautuminen. Teoksessa Antti Karisto & Eero Lahelma & Ossi Rahkonen (toim.): Terveyssosiologia. WSOY, Juva 1992, 121-139.

E.Lahelma & A.Karisto: Morbidity and Social Structure: Recent Trends in Finland. European Journal of Public Health 3/1993, 245-253.

Lahelma, Eero & Kristiina Manderbacka & Ossi Rahkonen & Antti Karisto: Comparisons of Inequalities in Health: Evidence from National Surveys in Finland, Norway and Sweden. Social Science & Medicine 38 (1994), 517-524.

Huuhka, Minna & Eero Lahelma & Kristiina Manderbacka & Virpi Mattila & Antti Karisto & Ossi Rahkonen: Terveydentila ja sosiaalinen murros. Vuosien 1986 ja 1994 elinolotutkimukset [Health status and social change. Level of living surveys in 1986 and 1994]. Tilastokeskus, SVT, Elinolot 1996:2. Helsinki 1996.

Antti Karisto: Pirstoutuvan elämän politiikka [Fragmentation and life politics]. Janus 4 (1996): 3, 242-259.

Antti Karisto & Pentti Takala & Ilkka Haapola: Matkalla nykyaikaan. Elintason, elämäntavan ja sosiaalipolitiikan muutos Suomessa [Towards modernity. Level of living, way of life and social policy in Finland]. WSOY, Juva 1998.

Antti Karisto: Ikuisesti nuoria? Suurten ikäluokkien elämänkaari ja terveys [Forever young? Baby boomers’ life course and health]. Teoksessa E.Lahelma & O.Rahkonen (toim.): Elämänkaari ja terveys. Gaudeamus, Helsinki 1998, 145-166.

Antti Karisto: Pirstoutuvan elämän politiikka [Fragmentation and life politics]. Teoksessa J.P.Roos & Tommi Hoikkala (toim.): Elämänpolitiikka. Gaudeamus, Helsinki 1998, 54-75.

Antti Karisto (toim.): Suomalaiselämää Espanjassa. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Jyväskylä 2000.

Savioja, Hannele & Antti Karisto & Ossi Rahkonen & Katri Hellsten: Suurten ikäluokkien elämänkulku. Teoksessa Eino Heikkinen & Jouni Tuomi (toim.): Suomalainen elämänkulku. Tammi, Helsinki 2000: 58-73.

Antti Karisto: Kolmannen iän käsitteestä ja sen käytöstä. Gerontologia 16 (2002): 3, 138-142.

Antti Karisto: Vanhukset vuonna 2020. Suuret ikäluokat ja kolmannen iän ilmiö. Helsingin lääkärilehti 50/02: 5, 20-23.

A.Karisto & R.Konttinen: Kotikatua, kotiruokaa ja kaukomatkailua. Tutkimus ikääntyvien elämäntyyleistä. Palmenia-kustannus, Helsinki 2004.

A.Karisto & O.Nummela & R.Konttinen & I.Haapola & R.Valve & K.Heikkilä: Ikääntyvä Päijät-Häme. Kuntien hyvinvointiraportti. Helsingin yliopiston tutkimus- ja koulutuskeskus Palmenian raportteja ja selvityksiä 41/2003.

Antti Karisto: Väestö vanhenee sukupolvittain – suuret ikäluokat esimerkkinä. Eino Heikkinen & Taina Rantanen, toim.: Gerontologia. Duodecim, Helsinki 2003, 70-77.

Cecilia Tomassini & Stamatis Kalogirou & Emily Grundy & Tineke Fokkema & Pekka Martikainen & Marjolein Broese van Groenou & Antti Karisto: Contacts between elderly parents and their children in four European countries: current patterns and future prospects. European Journal of Ageing 2004.

Antti Karisto: Kolmas ikä B uusi näkökulma väestön ikääntymiseen. Teoksessa Ikääntyminen voimavarana. Tulevaisuusselonteon liiteraportti. Valtioneuvoston kanslian julkaisusarja 33/2004; 91-103.

Antti Karisto: Satumaa. Suomalaiseläkeläiset Espanjassa. Helsinki (2005 käsikirjoitus).Antti Karisto (toim.): Suuret ikäluokat. Vastapaino, Helsinki (2005 käsikirjoitus).

J. P. Roos

Life stories of social changes: Four generations of Finland. International Journal of Oral History No. 3. 1985, 179-190.

Suomalainen elämä. Tutkimus tavallisten suomalaisten elämäkerroista.(Finnish life. A study on ordinary Finns’ life stories). Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Hämeenlinna 1987.

Elämäntavasta elämäkertaan (From way of life to life story). Tutkijaliitto, Jyväskylä 1988.

(with Eija Nurminen): Models of parenting, between generations and classes. In Ulla Björnberg (ed.) Parents in the 1990’s. Conflicts, contradictions and change. Transaction books, New York 1992.

 Miehen elämää (Men’s life) (Eeva Peltosen kanssa, toim.) SKS, Helsinki 1994.

(with Elina Haavio-Mannila and Osmo Kontula) Familienorientierung, Liberalisierung und Ambivalenz im Sexualleben dreier Generationen in Finnland. In B. Nauck ja C. Onnen-Isemann (hrsg) Familie im Brennpunkt von Wissenschaft und Forschung. Luchterhand 1995, 399-418.

(with Elina Haavio-Mannila and Osmo Kontula): Repression, revolution and ambivalence. Sexual  life in three generations. Acta Sociologica 39, 4, 1996, 409-430.

(A.Rotkirchin kanssa (toim. ja esipuhe): Vanhemmat ja lapset  (Parents and Children) Gaudeamus 1997.

(T.Hoikkalan kanssa (toim. ja esipuhe): Elämänpolitiikka (Life Politics) Gaudeamus 1998.

(with T.Hoikkala): 2000-luvun elämä. Sosiologisia teorioita vuosituhannen vaihteesta. Gaudeamus, Tampere 2000.

Life’s turning points and generational consciousness. In Günter Burkart & Jürgen Wolf (hrsg):  Lebenszeiten. Erkundungen zur Soziologie der Generationen. Leske und Budrich 2002, 119-134.
The consequences of the crisis of the1990’s to the Nordic Welfare State: Finland and Sweden. In Arno Tausch (ed.): The three pillars of wisdom? A reader on globalization, World Bank pension models and welfare society. Nova Science 2002, 111-124.
(with Anna Rotkirch and Elina Haavio-Mannila) Do rich men have more sex? Gender, capital and sexual activity in four countries. In  A.K. Kollind  & A. Peterson (eds): Thoughts on family, gender, generation and class. Research Report No 133, Department of Sociology, Göteborg University 2003, 133-156.
(Elina Haavio-Mannilan ja Anna Rotkirchin kanssa): Olivatko suuret ikäluokat murroksen moottoreita?  Teoksessa Jani Erola ja Terhi-Anna Wilska (toim.) Yhteiskunnan moottori vai kivireki? Suuret ikäluokat ja 1960-lukulaisuus. SoPhi 92, 2004, 215-238.
Laajat ja suppeat sukupolvet; esimerkkinä suuret ikäluokat ja niiden ympärille kertyneet sukupolviliikkeet. Teoksesssa Antti Karisto (toim.) Suuret ikäluokat.  Ilmestyy 2005.
Missä he ovat nyt? 60- ja 70-lukulaiset aktivistit 2000-luvulla. Tommi Hoikkala, Sofia Laine ja Jyrki Laine (toim.): Mitä on tehtävä? Loki-kirjat 2005.

Anna Rotkirch  

Daniel Bertaux, Paul Thompson & Anna Rotkirch (eds): On Living Through Soviet Russia. London, Routledge. 2003.
E.Haavio-Mannila, O.Kontula & A.Rotkirch: Sexual Lifestyles in the 20th Century. London: Palgrave. 2002.
J.P. Roos & Anna Rotkirch (toim.): Vanhemmat ja lapset (Parents and children). Helsinki: Gaudeamus. 1997.

Anna Rotkirch: ’Miten sosiologinen teoria kohtaa evoluutioteorian?’ Teoksessa Anneli Meurman-Solin & Ilkka Pyysiäinen, Ihmistiede tänään, Helsinki, WSOY, 2005.
E.Haavio-Mannila, A.Rotkirch & O.Kontula: ‘Contradictory trends in sexual life in St.Petersburg, Estonia and Finland’. In A.Stulhofer & T.andfort (eds) Sexuality and Gender in Postcommunist Eastern Europe and Russia, 317-363. New York: The Haworth Press. 2004.
Elina Haavio-Mannila & Anna Rotkirch: Ydin- ja versoperheet Suomessa ja Pietarissa’. Teoksessa R.Alapuro & I.Arminen (toim.) Vertailevan tutkimuksen ulottuvuuksia. Helsinki: WSOY 2004, 165-182.

E.Haavio-Mannila, J.P.Roos & A.Rotkirch: ’Olivatko suuret ikäluokat murroksen moottoreita?’. J. Erola & T-A. Wilska (toim.) Yhteiskunnan moottori vai kivireki? Suuret ikäluokat ja 60-lukulaisuus, 215-238. Jyväskylä:, SoPhi 92. 2004.

A.Rotkirch: ’Naturligtvis? Om moderskap, essentialism och evolutionsteori.’  Naistutkimus 3/03: 33-47.
J. P. Roos & Anna Rotkirch: ’Habituksen paluu? Evoluutioteorian huomioimisesta sosiologian ihmisnäkemyksessä, osa I-II’. Tieteessä tapahtuu 1/03, pp.33-41 & 2/03, pp.33-37.
J.P. Roos, Anna Rotkirch & Elina Haavio-Mannila: ‘Do rich men have most sex? Gender, capital and sexual activity in four countries.’ In A-K Kollind & A.Peterson (eds) Thoughts on Family, Gender, Generation and Class. Research No 133, Dept of Sociology, Göteborg University. 2003.

E.Haavio-Mannila,O.Kontula&A.Rotkirch: ‘Sexuelle Lebensstile in drei Generationen.’ Sexualforschung 2003;16;1-17.

Elina Haavio-Mannila &Anna Rotkirch:‘Gender Polarisation and Liberalisation: Comparing Sexuality in St. Petersburg, Finland and Sweden’. Idäntutkimus  3/4 2000, pp.4-25.
Anna Rotkirch: ‘Pirstoutunut vanhemmuus.’ (Fractured parenthood) In J. P. Roos & Tommi Hoikkala (eds) 2000-luvun elämä. Sosiologisia teorioita vuosituhannen vaihteesta, 187-200. Helsinki: Gaudeamus. 2000.
Anna Rotkirch & Marina Liborakina: ‘Social Consequences of the 1998 Crisis in Russia: Household Strategies and Their Challenges to Social Policy’. Idäntutkimus, 2/1999, 24-48.
Elina Haavio-Mannila &Anna Rotkirch:’Generational and Gender Differences in Sexual Life in St.Petersburg and Urban Finland.’ Yearbook of Population Research in Finland XXXIV, Population Trends in the Baltic Sea Area. Helsinki: The Family Federation of Finland 1997.
A.Rotkirch &A.Temkina: ‘Soviet Gender Contracts and Their Shifts in Contemporary Russia’. Idäntutkimus –s, 2/1997.










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