#InariDig2: Käytännön ohjeita / Practical information

Tässä käytännön infoa niille, jotka ovat osallistumassa tämän vuoden kaivauksille. Eli jos olet ilmoittautunut osallistuvasi, saat tästä vinkkejä valmistautumiseen.

Osallistujien on syytä ottaa mukaan seuraavat varusteet:

  1. Kaivamiseen soveltuva vaatetus, joka suojaa Lapin kesän vaihtelevilta säiltä.
    • Mukana on hyvä olla lämmin takki tai huppari, vedenpitävä takki ja housut, pitkähihaisia paitoja ja auringolta suojaava päähine.
    • Ota myös huomioon, että kaivaminen kuluttaa vaatteita. Varaudu siis sellaisilla vaatteilla, jotka saavat kärsiä touhutessa.
    • Lapissa on aina paljon itikoita, joilta voi suojautua parhaiten peittävällä vaatetuksella. Peitetty iho ei ole läheskään niin kutsuva kuin paljas.
  2. Hyvät jalkineet. Vedenpitävät vaelluskengät tai kumisaappaat soveltuvat hyvin mutaiseenkin maastoon.
  3. Korkeakertoiminen aurinkovoide.
  4. Hyönteiskarkoitteet. Riittävästi. Ja vielä enemmän.
  5. Vesipullo.
  6. Työhanskat.
  7. Polvisuojat/alusta. Kaivaminen tapahtuu usein polvillaan, joten pehmeä alusta voi tulla tarpeeseen ja tekee työskentelystä mukavampaa.

Tapaamme kaivauspaikalla joka aamu klo 10:00, paitsi ensimmäisenä aamuna tapaaminen Siidan edessä jo klo 9:00. Olethan ajoissa paikalla!

Lounas on omakustanteinen ja sen voi nauttia lähiravintolassa tai tuoda omia eväitä mukaan (huomioi kuitenkin, että istumapaikat metsässä voivat olla kiven alla).

On tärkeää, että pidät mukanasi ladatun matkapuhelimen, jotta voit saada yhteyden kaivausten järjestäjiin nopeasti hätätapauksen ilmaantuessa.  Varmistathan, että yhteystiedot ovat tallennettuna puhelimeesi ennen kaivauksille osallistumista.

Voit ottaa kuvia kaivauksilta työskentelyn aikana, mutta toivoisimme, että jakaisit ne kanssamme tutkimustamme varten. Ne voi lähettää liitetiedostona osoitteeseen darheritagelapland@gmail.com, tai jakaa Instagramissa tai Twitterissä hashtagillä #InariDig. Jos otat kuvia muista, pyydäthän heiltä luvan kuvaamiseen!

Nähdään pian!

Suzie valmiina kaivauksiin viime vuonna. / Suzie ready for work at last years dig site.

Here is some information for those attending the excavation in Inari. So if you have signed up, this is how you can prepare!

All attendees will need the following:

  1. Appropriate clothing – You will need to protect yourself from cold, wet, sunny and hot weather because this is what Lapland summers are like!
    • You may like to include a warm coat/jumper, a waterproof coat, waterproof leggings, cool full-length clothing for covering up, and most importantly a sun hat.
    • Don’t forget that archaeological work takes its toll on your clothing, so don’t bring clothes that you will be upset about if they get damaged or dirty!
    • Given the mosquitoes of Lapland, it is also advisable to wear long sleeves and trousers – exposed skin is akin to shouting “buffet’s open”!
  2. Footwear – Wellington boots are useful as areas may get muddy. You will also need a pair of heavy boots, preferably with steel toe caps.
  3. High factor sun creams.
  4. Insect repellent – as high strength as you can get. Bring plenty. And then some more.
  5. A water bottle/flask.
  6. Gloves – you might want to bring a pair of hardwearing work gloves of your own.
  7. Kneeling pads – you might want to bring your own kneeling pad to help make close excavation a little more comfortable.

We will meet at 10:00 every morning at the dig site, except on the first day we meet prompt at 9:00 at the main entrance of the Siida museum.

Lunch can be bought at a local restaurant or café, and you are welcome to bring your own food at the site (but note that places to sit can be scarce in the woods).

It is essential for you to bring your own mobile phone, and to ensure that it is adequately charged for a day working outside. Please make sure you have all the needed contact details, so that you can reach us quickly in case of emergency or other incident.

You may wish to take photographs during the excavation – we would like you to share with us any pictures you take, as it will contribute to our own research project. Pictures can be sent to darheritagelapland@gmail.com, or added to Instagram or Twitter with the hashtag #InariDig. If you are photographing other people, be sure to ask their permission first!

See you soon!

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Projektin jäseniä tutkimassa maastoa Vuotsossa. / Team members at a site in Vuotso.

New publication: Abandoned Refugee Vehicles “In the Middle of Nowhere”

Lapland’s Dark Heritage is active even during the summer holidays. Oula Seitsonen, Vesa-Pekka Herva and Mika Kunnari (University of Lapland) recently published a new research paper ‘Abandoned Refugee Vehicles “In the Middle of Nowhere”: Reflections on the Global Refugee Crisis from the Northern Margins of Europe‘ in a special issues of the Journal of Contemporary Archaeology. Their article discusses the heritage of recent refugee flow through Lapland’s northern border posts and the cars that were abandoned and confiscated at the border.

Things left in the abandoned vehicles (Photos: Oula Seitsonen).

“Archaeology and heritage studies are, or should be, in a position to say something
meaningful about these broader issues entangled with refugees, and not least because
recent research in both fields has addressed themes that are more or less directly related
to refugee issues on the one hand, and materialities similar to the abandoned cars on
the other. For example, refugee issues represent a natural extension of the flourishing
interest in twentieth- to twenty-first-century conflicts, while the abandoned refugee
vehicles strike a resonance with themes such as “dark tourism” and ruins, or “ruin porn”.

The attraction to modern ruins and abandoned places and things, as exemplified by the
hobby known as “urban exploration”, is a mirror that reflects the significance of the very
materiality of the abandoned refugee vehicles. That is, the interest in urban exploration
and related practices would appear to denote a desire or need to encounter the world
and the past in an unmediated, “raw” form, “face to face”, and in one’s own terms. For
better or worse, the interpretation and understanding of the past and its material remains
have traditionally been dominated by experts who have told the public why this or that
thing surviving from the past is important, hence distancing non-experts from the valuation
of heritage. The same applies to refugee issues, which are governed by the state
in a faceless and bureaucratic manner, which in turn distances the public from the lived
experience and distress of the refugees. Direct encounters with the material realities
of the refugees, however, could be employed to spark personal, first-hand reflections
about, and connections with, refugee issues.”

Digging Cultybraggan and searching for escape tunnels

Next week from Monday 19th June LDH researcher Suzie Thomas and our project colleague Iain Banks will be busy looking at Second World War internment heritage in Scotland.

Historic Environment Scotland has provided sponsorship for an excavation at Cultybraggan Prisoner of War (PoW) Camp, outside Comrie in Perthshire.  The camp was originally built for holding Italian PoWs, but later in the Second World War, was used for German PoWs.  Cultybraggan was part of a network of PoW camps across Britain, but was important as one of only two ‘Black’ camps in Scotland along with Watten in Caithness: both High Security camps where prisoners considered to be the most dangerous PoWs were held.

Location of Cultybraggan camp in Scotland.

We know that there were escape attempts from the compound, and that inmates had attempted to tunnel their way out of the camp.  None of the attempts were successful. The purpose of the excavation is to locate traces of tunnels in the camp’s Compound B, so that they can be compared to the tunnels of Stalag Luft III, which the University of Glasgow Centre for Battlefield Archaeology and GUARD excavated in 2011.

After the war, the camp was used for a variety of purposes, including as a training camp for the Army, the Territorial Army, and finally for a range of youth groups.  It has survived very well because of the subsequent uses, but it does mean that there have been many alterations to the camp.

Iain and Suzie will work alongside a team of MLitt Conflict Archaeology & Heritage students from University of Glasgow, as well as with volunteers from the local community; there will also be a contract archaeologist from GUARD Archaeology Ltd on site. A core goal of the fieldwork is to involve members of the community to promote the site on behalf of Comrie Development Trust, and to give local residents in the Comrie area the opportunity to participate in archaeological fieldwork.

View of Cultybraggan PoW camp, image courtesy of Iain Banks.

Suzie is also interested to talk to local people about the meanings and values they associate with the site, as part of her research at the University of Glasgow through a Royal Society of Edinburgh / Caledonian Research Fund European Visiting Fellowship. Please contact her if you are interested in speaking with her! suzie.e.thomas @ helsinki.fi

On the evening of Saturday 24th June, Iain will be giving a lecture in Comrie about PoW camps and the work that we have done at Cultybraggan. Everybody is welcome!

Yleisökaivaukset / Public excavations / Arkeologalaš roggamat 7.–16.8.2017

Lapin synkkä kulttuuriperintö -hanke (Helsingin ja Oulun yliopistot) ja saamelaismuseo Siida järjestävät yhdessä yleisökaivaukset toisen maailmansodan aikaisella saksalaisella sotilasalueella Inarin Kaamasen kylässä 7.–16.8.2017.

Edellisvuonna 2016 kaivaukset järjestettiin Inarin kylässä saksalaisen sotilassairaalan alueella. Tällä kertaa kohteena on kaksi toisen maailmansodan aikaista saksalaista tukikohtaa Inarin Kaamasen Haaraldinjärvellä ja Hyljelahdessa, joissa on ollut vankileirit neuvostoliittolaisille ja muille sotavangeille ja pakkotyöläisille.

Historioitsija Lars Westerlund on yhdistänyt Hyljelahden leirin saksalaisten rangaistusleiriin (Polarstraflager), jossa majoitettiin myös venäjänjuutalaisia sotavankeja. Sotavangit osallistuivat molemmilla leireillä tienrakentamiseen ja metsätöihin, ja Haaraldinjärvellä lisäksi saksalaisten sotilaslentokentän rakennustöihin.

Hankkeemme on tutkinut aiempina kenttäkausinaan saksalaisten vankileirejä ja nämä tutkimukset ovat jo nyt valaisseet monia teemoja, joista ei löydy tietoa kirjallisista lähteistä. Esimerkiksi vankien elin- ja majoitusoloista, suhteesta vartijoihin, sekä vankileirien tilallisista järjestelyistä on saatu uutta tietoa. Vankileirejä ja niiden tutkimusta voi hyödyntää myös linsseinä, joiden kautta tarkastellaan erilaisia laajempia, yleismaailmallisia kysymyksiä, esimerkiksi käsityksiä vangeista sekä asenteita heitä kohtaan ja luonnon ja ihmisten suhteita.

Toivotamme vapaaehtoiset tervetulleiksi tutkimaan kanssamme. Osallistujien tulee rekisteröityä sähköisen ilmoittautumisjärjestelmän kautta. Mukaan otetaan ilmoittautumisjärjestyksessä 10 osallistujaa. Vapaaehtoisten täytyy järjestää itse oma majoituksensa , ruokailunsa sekä päivittäinen kulkemisensa kaivauspaikalle.

On tärkeää, että vapaaehtoiset ilmoittavat tutkimusryhmälle mahdollisista sairauksista tai lääkityksistä, jotka voivat vaikuttaa hyvinvointiin kaivauksilla, sillä kaivaminen on fyysisesti kohtalaisen vaativaa. Osallistujilla tulee olla voimassa oleva vapaa-ajan tapaturmavakuutus, joka kattaa mahdolliset henkilökohtaiset vahingot sekä viimeisen 10 vuoden kuluessa annettu jäykkäkouristusrokote. Kaikkia osallistujia pyydetään myös allekirjoittamaan suostumuslomake osallistumisesta tieteelliseen tutkimukseen.

Lisätietoa sähköpostilla laplandsdarkheritage@gmail.com tai puhelimitse professori Vesa-Pekka Herva p. 050 4620132.

Public Excavations of Second World War German military site in Inari, Kaamanen August 7.–16.8.2017

Lapland’s Dark Heritage (Universities of Helsinki and Oulu) is organizing, together with Siida – the Finnish Sámi Museum, a public excavation at Second World War (WWII)-period sites in Kaamanen, Inari, Lapland, 7.–16.8.2017.

The project already organized public excavations in 2016 on a WWII German military hospital site in Inari village. This time the sites planned for excavation are Haaraldinjärvi and Hyljelahti, which are located in Kaamanen village, Inari.

Historian Lars Westerlund has connected Hyljelahti to a German-run punishment camp (Polarstraflager), where Soviet Jewish prisoners of war were also accommodated. At both sites the prisoners were involved in road building and forest working, and at Haaraldinjärvi also in building the German military airfield.

Our research project has addressed, among other themes, WWII German prisoner of war (PoW) camps of Lapland highlighting many issues underrepresented in the documentary sources, such as information about the prisoners’ living conditions, relationships between the prisoners and guards, and the spatial organization of camps. The PoW camp studies can also act as lenses through which various wider issues can be assessed, for instance, about the views and attitudes towards the prisoners and human-environmental relations.

We welcome volunteers to take part in the excavations. All volunteers need to pre-register here.  We can take a maximum of 10 participants per day. Places are allocated on a first come, first served basis. Volunteers need to arrange their own accommodation and subsistence, and to organize their daily transport to and from the sites.

It is important that when registering, the volunteers mention any medical requirements and conditions that might affect their well-being at the site: excavation work is physically moderately demanding and takes place in all weather. The participants need to have a valid insurance covering any personal accidents on site, and have to confirm that they have been vaccinated against tetanus within 10 years. All participants are also asked to sign a form of consent for research purposes  at the site.

For more information, please contact us by email: laplandsdarkheritage@gmail.com or call Professor Vesa-Pekka Herva p. 050 4620132.

DÁBÁLAŠ OLBMUIDE DÁRKKUHUVVON ARKEOLOGALAŠ ROGGAMAT DUISKALAČČAID SOAHTEGUOVLLUS ANÁRA GÁPMASIS 7.–16.8.2017

Lappi sevdnjes kulturárbi -prošeakta (Helsset ja Oulu universitehtat) ja sámemusea Siida ordnejit ovttasráđiid arkeologalaš roggamiid, mat leat dárkkuhuvvon dábálaš olbmuide. Arkeologalaš roggamat leat nuppi máilmmisoađi áigásaš duiskalaš soalddatguovllus Anára Gápmasa gilis 7.–16.8.2017.

Mannán gease, jagi 2016 roggamiid ordnejedjeduiskalaččat soalddátbuohcceviesu guovllus Anára márkanis. Dán jagi vuorus leat guokte nuppi máilmmisoađi áigásaš  soahteguovllu Anára Gápmasa Haaraldjävris ja Njuárjuluohtâs. Doppe leat leamaš fáŋgaleairrat sovjetlihttulaččaide ja eará soahtefáŋggaide ja bággobargiide.

Historihkkár Lars Westerlund lea ovttastan Njuárjuluohtâ leairra duiskalaččaid ráŋggáštusleirii (Polarstraflager), gos dolle maid ruoššajuvddálaš soahtefáŋggaid. Soahtefáŋggat válde oasi goappáge leairras geaidnobargguide ja vuovdebargguide, ja Haaraldjävris vel dasa lassin duiskkalaččaid soahtegirdigietti huksenbargguide.

Máŋggadieđalaš Suoma Akatemiija ruhtadan Lappi sevdnjes kulturárbi -dutkanprošeakta (2015-2018) lea dutkan ovddit gieddebargguid olis duiskalaččaid fáŋgaleairraid. Dutkamušat leat rahpan máŋggaid temáid, mat eai gávdno čálalaš gálduin. Ođđa dieđuid leat ožžon ovdamearkka dihte  fáŋggaid eallin- ja ássandiliin, fáŋggain gaskavuođain fávttaide, ja fáŋgaleairraid dilleordnestallamiin.  Fáŋgaleairraid ja daid dutkamušaid sáhttá geavahit dego giikkárin, maid bokte sáhttá geahččat viiddit, almmolaš gažaldagaid. Ovdamearkka dihte dan, maid olbmot jurddašit fáŋggaid birra ja olbmuid doaladumiid sis ja vel luonddu ja olbmuid gaskavuođaid.

Eaktodáhtolaččat leat bures boahtin

Sávvat bures boahtin eaktodáhtolaččaide dutkat ovttas minguin. Oassálastit galget registreret iežaset almmuhanskoviin: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScCt5uu8FqLcTavwmoAJ1AcIz60O6W9DJi69bos-Sf5WquM0w/viewform?c=0&w=1

Fárrui besset 10 oassálasti almmuhanortnegis. Eaktodáhtolaččat galget ieža ordnet iežaset ássama (prošeakta sáhttá dárbbu mielde veahkehit idjasaji gávdnamis), borramuša ja beaivválaš mátkkiid rogganbáikái.

Lea dehálaš, ahte eaktodáhtolaččat almmuhit dutkanjovkui vejolaš buohcuvuođain dahje dálkasiin, mat sáhttet váikkuhit veadjimii rogganbáikkis, dasgo roggan lea fysalaččat oalle lossat. Oassálastis galgá leat fámus dáhpedorbmedáhkádus, mii lea fámus friijaáiggis ja mat dáhkidit personvahágiid. Oassálastis galgá leat maid maŋimuš 10 jagi siste addojuvvon tetanus-boahkuheapmi. Buot oassálastit galget maid vuolláičállit skovi, mainna dohkkehit dan, ahte sii oassálastet dieđalaš dutkamuššii.

Lassedieđut e-poasttain laplandsdarkheritage@gmail.com dahje telefovnna bokte professor Vesa-Pekka Herva tel. 050 4620132.

And Now for Something Completely Different: Fieldwork in Mongolia

Oula Seitsonen took off yesterday to continue his field research with Jean-Luc Houle and others in the Western Mongolia Archaeology Project – and to finish his PhD manuscript on Lapland’s Dark Heritage while walking the steppes.

Mongolian research investigates the human-environment relationships and the social, political, and economic organizations of Bronze and Iron Age pastoral societies in the Zuunkhangai region (Uvs Province) of Mongolia through the use of landscape and settlement archaeology. Project’s previous field seasons have concentrated in the Khanuy Valley region north of the Khangai Mountais and in the Mongolian Altai, both areas where the Finnish pioneer explorers G.J. Ramstedt, Sakari Pälsi and J.G. Granö were also traveling in the early 1900s. Sakari Pälsi became in 1909 the first professional archaeologist to document the iconic monumental features of Mongolian Bronze Age, khirigsuur grave mounds and deer stones, amongst lot of other archaeological sites. After these early Finnish explorers a century passed until Oula started retracing their footsteps, and plans to continue doing so.

Workshopping: Uses of diffucult heritage (Kalmar, Sweden) and Helsinki Digital Humanities Hackathon 2017

Oula Seitsonen has been this week busy workshopping in Sweden and Finland. On Tuesday and Wednesday he took part in the seminar Memories of Violence and Oppression: Developing new uses of difficult heritage sites and landscapes in the Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden, presenting the “‘#InariDig: Public archaeology and augmented reality in engaging with difficult heritage”.

Rest of the week went in the Helsinki Digital Humanities Hackathon 2017 #DHH17. Oula was working through the week as part of the cultural heritage team consisting of humanists and computer scientists, marveling the theme “Heritage Sites and Participatory Cultures in the Digital Age“. Team came up with interesting observations related to the official and unofficial heritage in Finland and their uses based on various kinds of data, such as comparisons of participatory Geocaching and Pokemon Go sites to the nationally recognized heritage sites. The preliminary observations made during the week will be pursued further in the future.

Geocaches: Left) All geocaches (red), caches within 200 m of RKY sites (black); Right) Kernel Density Estimation of the latter.

Lapland’s Dark Heritage fieldwork preparations

Vesa-Pekka Herva, Oula Seitsonen and Suzie Thomas are in the Inari area for a few days to make some plans for the eagerly anticipated #InariDig2 coming up in August. We have had a short visit to Utsjoki, checked in with our colleagues at Siida museum, and are making contact with local community members close to the sites we are considering investigating in the summer.

19th -century church in the village of Utsjoki, in Utsjoki municipality; the northernmost municipality in both Finland and the EU. Photo: Suzie Thomas

Along with us is Dr Tehmina Goskar, a museum professional and researcher from Cornwall, UK, who is carrying out research under the Change Makers programme funded by Arts Council England.

You can follow our work and adventures via our Twitter feed @DarkLapland and also follow Tehmina at @tehm.

SAVE THE DATES! KALENTERIT ESIIN!

The dates for #InariDig2 are now confirmed and the dig will be from August 7th to 16th. We will have an open excavation like last year and the registration opens in the end of May. The specifics are yet to be confirmed and we will keep you posted along the way. A sure thing is that there will be a limited amount of spots for volunteers so stay tuned!

#InariDig2:n ajankohta on nyt selvillä. Yleisölle avoimet kaivaukset järjestetään kesän lopussa 7.-16.8.2017. Ilmoittautuminen vapaaehtoiseksi avautuu toukokuun lopussa ja lisätietoa alkaa tippumaan pitkin kevättä ja kesää. Vaikka moni asia onkin vielä epäselvää, on varmaa se, että paikkoja vapaaehtoisille on rajoitettu määrä. Kannattaa siis pitää korvat höröllä!

Suzie Thomas talking about Lapland’s Dark Heritage in London

On Thursday 9th March, Suzie Thomas will give a lecture entitled “Lapland’s Dark Heritage: Understanding the Material Legacy of the Second World War in Northern Finland” at the Society of Antiquaries of London.

Her lecture has the description:

“In this lecture I will talk about current research at the Universities of Helsinki and Oulu, with which I am involved as a Researcher. In the project “Lapland’s Dark Heritage”, we are investigating the ways in which local residents and visitors to Finnish Lapland engage with and understand the material culture left behind by both the German military presence in Finland, and the so-called “Lapland War” (1944-45). This research has revealed varied, and sometimes surprising, interactions with the material heritage of this period – which itself ranges from collectible military memorabilia through to the traces of former structures, including PoW camps and military depots, in the Lapland wilderness. In this talk, I will give a historical overview of Finland’s experiences in the Second World War, and share some diverse case studies from the research. This includes a potentially controversial exhibition in a Lapland museum (and visitor reactions to it), individual history hobbyists and artefact collectors – often with very personal stories and reasons for engaging with the wartime material – through to “alternative” expressions of touristic activities and attractions.”

The lecture is open to Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries of London and their guests, and will also be recorded to be available to watch via the website.

By Tony Hisgett from Birmingham, UK – Burlington House Gates 2Uploaded by tm, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27908270

UPDATE: The film of the lecture is now available to view online.

War through Other Stuff Conference, Edinburgh / War through Other Stuff -konferenssi Edinburghissa

Oula Seitsonen and Vesa-Pekka Herva are taking part for the rest of the week in the War through Other Stuff Conference in Edinburgh, Scotland. They present on Thursday February 23 a paper about a rather unlikely sounding couple, rural folk magic and modern war. Magical thinking and 20th-century conflict may appear as odd bedfellows, but some recent research proposes that magical thinking was common, for example, among military personnel during the Second World War. Albeit often marginalized and ignored, magical thinking affects the ways people understand and relate with the world in modern western societies in general, and in wartime conditions in particular. War can be considered as an inherently liminal state of affairs characterized by uncertainty, which in turn promotes ‘superstitious’ beliefs, for instance in the form of using protective charms. This paper discusses special finds and features recovered recently from three German-run WWII PoW camps in the northern margins of Finland. These peculiar and outwardly purposeless finds are considered in the context of rural folk magic and spiritualities in a ‘peripheral’ region of northern Finland. This paper brings together a host of broader issues: rural cultures and mindsets in the North, the significance of magical thinking in the context of (the material heritage of) modern war, and the perception of Lapland as an enchanted land characterized by natural and supernatural marvels and cultural ‘backwardness’. It is argued that the special deposits and features in question were made after the war in an attempt to ‘pacify’ malevolent places literally and figuratively haunted by ghosts of the wartime in the local folklore.

Lapin sotureita / Lapland’s warriors.

Oula Seitsonen and Vesa-Pekka Herva ottavat tällä viikolla osaa War through Other Stuff konferenssiin Edinburghissa, Skotlannissa. He pitävät torstaina 23.2. esitelmän ehkä hieman epätodennäköisen kuuloisesta aisaparista, kansantaikuudesta ja modernista sodasta. Maaginen ajattelu ja 20. vuosisadan konfliktit voivat kuulostaa oudolta parivaljakolta, mutta tuoreet tutkimukset ehdottavat, että maaginen ajattelu oli yleistä esimerkiksi sotilaiden keskuudessa toisessa maailmansodassa. Vaikka maaginen ajattelu jää usein marginaaliin ja sitä ylenkatsotaan, se vaikuttaa edelleen ihmisten tapaan toimia ja ymmärtää myös modernia länsimaista maailmaa ylipäänsä, ja erityisesti sodan aikana. Sota on perusolemukseltaan epävarma ja liminaali toimintaympäristö, mikä edistää ‘yliluonnollisia’ uskomuksia, esimerkiksi turvautumista erilaisiin onnenkaluihin. Esitelmä käsittelee odottamattomia erikoisia löytöjä, jotka olemme tehneet vastikään kolmella saksalaisten toisen maailmansodan aikaisella vankileirillä Lapissa.  Tulkitsemme näitä outoja ja näennäisesti tarkoituksettomia löytöjä kansanuskon viitekehyksessä. Tämä lähestymistapa koskettelee myös monia muita laajempia kysymyksiä, kuten pohjoisen maaseudun kulttuurin ja ajattelutapojen erityispiirteitä, maagisen ajattelun merkitystä modernin sodan materiaalisten jäänteiden yhteydessä, ja yleisiä näkymyksiä Lapista taianomaisena alueena, jolle  on luonteenomaista yliluonnolliset ja luonnonihmeet sekä kulttuurinen ‘takapajuisuus’. Ehdotamme, että tekemämme erikoiset löydöt ja ilmiöt on asetettu paikoilleen ja tehty sodan jälkeen, ja niiden tavoitteena on ollut ‘rauhoittaa’ nämä pahansuovat paikat, joita sodan haamut ovat vaivanneet kuvaannollisesti ja kirjaimellisesti paikallisessa kansanperinteessä.