Instruments, sensors and equipment: physical measurements


  1. Ocean Optics Maya 2000 Pro array-detector spectrometer configured and calibrated for spectral irradiance measurements in UV, VIS and near IR (250 nm to 900 nm, resolution 0.5 nm). Bentham cosine diffusor.
  2. Ocean Optics Jaz two-channel portable array-detector spectrometer with built-in Xenon light source. Wavelength range 200 nm to 850 nm, resolution 1 nm, but slit is user replaceable. Different configurations are possible: 1) using two integrating spheres for simultaneous measuring total-transmittance and total-reflectance of thin solid objects (plastic films, glass filters, and plant leaves or sections), 2) using two standard 1-cm cuvettes in separate holders to make differential absorbance measurements in non-scattering liquid samples, 3) using one 1-cm “four-sided” cuvette for simultaneous measurements of direct light attenuation in the direction of the excitation beam, and of scattered light (or fluorescence if strong-enough) at 90 degrees from the excitation light beam; 4) Using two Bentham cosine diffusors for relative irradiance measurements.
  3. sglux SiC-Spectrometer LS128 configured and calibrated for spectral irradiance in the range 190 nm to 390 nm, resolution 2.5 nm. This instrument is blind to visible radiation and avoids the problem of stray light.
  4. Two-channel spectrophotometer (for use with 1 cm-cuvettes), the two channels are separately configurable.
  5. Software for Ocean Optics instruments: OceanView, SpectraSuite, OminiDriver, custom software for data acquisition and processing using R and RStudio.
  6. Software for the sglux instrument: LabView-based demo software supplied by manufacturer plus simple command set for use our own scripts.
  7. Software for the spectrophotometer. Custom software developed by Dr. Nikolai Belevich (IBT).


  1. LI-COR LI-190 quantum sensors and levelling bases for measuring photon irradiance in the band 400 nm to 700 nm (Photosynthetically Active Radiation or PAR).
  2. A Delta-T BF5 sensor for measuring the direct and diffuse components of photon irradiance in the band 400 nm to 700 nm (Photosynthetically Active Radiation or PAR).
  3. A Kipp SMP3 pyranometer for measuring global radiation as energy irradiance. Sensitivity from 300 nm to 2800 nm. ISO 9060 Second Class instrument.
  4. A Solar Light PMA 1102 ultraviolet radiation sensor (Erythemal or UV Index) weighted irradiance units. Analogue voltage output.
  5. A Skye SKR-110 red and far-red sensor, two bands centred at 660 nm and 730, with a FHSW? of xxx nm (borrowed from Luke).
  6. Miniature amplified SiC-broadband TOCON sensors from sglux for UVB radiation (2 pieces), UVA radiation (2 pieces), Blue light (2 pieces).
  7. Various photodiodes, phototransistors and integrated circuits for medium and low precision visible and UV radiation measurement.


  1. Thermochron iButtons for logging soil or air temperature, fully water proof. Type DS1922L. Temperature range -40 C to +85 C. Resolution programmable to 0.5 C or 0.0625 C. Quantity: 20 pieces .
  2. Hygrochron iButtons for logging air temperature and relative humidity, splash proof. Type DS1923. Temperature range -40 C to +85 C. Resolution programmable to 0.5 C or 0.0625 C. Relative humidity range: 0% to 100%. Quantity: 4 pieces.
  3. Waterproof thermistors for soil temperature. Campbell Scientific thermistor probe type 107. Quantity: 4 pieces.
  4. Miniature thermistors. Murata type
  5. Semiconductor temperature sensors (custom assembled, waterproof for short term burial). National Semiconductor LM35. Range -55 C to 150 C. Uncalibrated accuracy 0.5 C.
  6. High precision infra-red non-contact thermometer switchable between normal and macro settings with laser sighting. Optris LS LT. Temperature range: -35 C to 900 C. Response time 150 ms. Minimum spot size: 1 mm. Resolution: 0.1 C. Repeatability 0.5% of reading.
  7. Thermographic camera. Optris PI450. 382 x 288 pixels. Frame rate up to 80 Hz. Thermal sensitivity 40 mK. Temperature range: -20 C to 900 C. Field of view 38 x 29 degrees.

Carbon dioxide

  1. Miniature USB module for measuring ambient CO2 in range 0 to 10000 ppm. Sensitivity: 20 ppm. Accuracy: plus/minus 30 ppm. YoctoPuce Yocto-CO2. Digital output with built-in logging.


  1. Weather transmitter Vaisala WXT520 with digital output for measuring air temperature and humidity, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and atmospheric pressure. Digital output. Relative humidity, range: 0% to 100%, accuracy 1.8%; pressure, range: 600 hPa to 1100 hPa, accuracy 0.1 hPa; temperature, range: -52 C to 60 C, accuracy 0.3 C; wind speed, range 0 m/s to 60 m/s, accuracy 3%, response time 250 ms; wind direction, range 0 to 360 degrees, accuracy plus/minus 3 degrees; cumulative rainfall, resolution 0.01 mm, accuracy 5%; rainfall intensity, range 0 to 200 mm/h. Hail also sensed and hits counted.
  2. Miniature USB module for indoors measurement of air temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure. YoctoPuce Yocto-Meteo. Digital output with built-in logging. Refresh rate: 1Hz. Relative humidity, range: 0% to 100%, accuracy 1.8%; pressure, range: 200 mbar to 1100 mbar, accuracy 1 mbar; temperature, range: -40 C to 125 C, accuracy 0.2 C.

Soil water content

  1. Delta-T SM-150 Soil Moisture sensor. Range: 0 to 40-60 %vol, Accuracy: 3%. Volume of soil: 0.5 l to 1 l.
  2. Decagon EC-5 Small Volume Soil Moisture Sensor. Accuracy: plus/minus 3% volumetric water content (VWC). Resolution: 0.1% VWC. Quantity: 20 pieces. Volume of soil: 0.24 l.


  • Waterproof contact microphones (from Jez Riley French)
  • Other contact microphones (from Jez Riley French)
  • Sonitron, piezoelectric speakers, 2 pieces
  • Sonitron amplifier for piezoelectric speaker, PAA-LM4960SQ-02, 2 pieces

Magnetism and EMI

  • Pickup coil (from Jez Riley French)
  • Beehive 100C large H-Field Probe

Read out devices and computer and network interfaces

  1. Delta-T HH2 Moisture meter.
  2. Decagon ProCheck sensor readout and storage system.
  3. LI-COR LI-250A Light Meter
  4. Meterman 35XP Multimeter (3.5 digits) Resolution: mV, uA.
  5. Agilent U1252B Multimeter (high end, 5 digits, USB-IR, Bluetooth) Resolution: uV and nA.
  6. Oscilloscope, PICO Picoscope 2204A (USB interface). Two measuring channels, 10 MHz, 10 mV to 20 V;  One arbitrary-signal-generator channel (predefined or arbitrary) DC to 100 KHz
  7. Meilhaus RedLab 1008 interface. Analogue input: 8 channels, range ±10V, resolution 12 bits; analogue output: 2 channels, range 0 V to 5 V, resolution 10 bits, PWM; digital in/out channels: 4, as counter max frequency 1 MHz. USB port to computer.
  8. YoctoPuce Yocto-milliVolt-Rx. Analogue input channels: 1, range -1 V to +2V, accuracy 0.1%, resolution 20 μV. Digital output with built-in logging and noise filtering. Quantity: 4.
  9. YoctoPuce Yocto-PWM-Tx. Pulse-width-modulator. Output channels: 2, frequency: 1 Hz to 1 MHz, duty cycle: 0% to 100%, output on: 3.3 V or 5.0 V.
  10. YoctoPuce YoctoHub-Ethernet. Hub for interfacing YoctoPuce modules to Ethernet network. Functions as a server interface to sensors and outputs. Quantity: 1.
  11. YoctoPuce YoctoHub-Shield. Adds additional USB ports for modules to the YoctoHub-Ethernet. Quantity: 3.


  1. Campbell Scientific CR6 measurement and control datalogger + AM16/32B 16/32 channel multiplexer + power source + solar panel + plus instrument tripod. Analogue resolution 24 bits, 50 nV, maximum measuring frequency 354 Hz. Digital input/output: counters, switch, SDI-12 and SDM, serial. Other interface: USB, Ethernet. Advanced programing software for Windows PC.


  1. GPS Logger BT 747Pro