Jumalan terve! -tervehdyksen teologisia ja sosiaalisia ulottuvuuksia

tervehdysEi siitä ole pitkäkään aika kun viimeksi erään lestadiolaisen tuttavan tavatessani hän kysyi minulta: “Tiedätkö sinä, miksi he eivät enää tervehdi minua Jumalan terveellä?” tarkoittaen vanhoillislestadiolaisia lähituttaviaan. Kysyjä hieman epätoivosena ihmetteli, mikä on saanut lähiyhteisön epäämään häneltä yhteisön yhteisen tervehdyksen, ja tämän seurauksena oli alkanut pohtia aiemmin niin tavallisena pitämänsä, yhteisön sisällä käytetyn tervehdyksen merkitystä. Mitä se oikein tarkoittaa? Mitä se tarkoittaa, kun jollekin sanotaan ja jollekin ei? Kysymys on ollut toistuva, joten avaan sitä hieman. Myös julkisuudessa tervehtimättömyys on yhteinen piirre niille kertomuksille, joita vanhoillislestadiolaisesta yhteisöstä lähteneet tai siitä erotetut ihmiset ovat kertoneet tapahtuneen.

Tervehtiminen, ihmisten kommunikaatioon kuuluva arkinen piirre, voi saada monitasoisia uskonnollisia merkityksiä, kun sitä tarkastellaan osa uskonnollista merkityksenannon järjestelmää, traditiota ja arkisia tapoja. Tervehtiminen on osa sosiaalista vuorovaikutusta ihmisten välillä. Markku Ihonen on kuvannut lestadiolaisuuden kieltä yhteisön yhdeksi tärkeäksi yhteisyyden tuottajaksi ja ylläpitäjäksi.

Jumalan terveellä tervehtiminen on osa kokonaista kielijärjestelmää, jota liikkeessä kutsutaan kaanaan kieleksi. Kaanaan kieli pohjautuu vanhaan kirkkoraamattuun, ja lisäksi siinä kulkee mukana monia elettyjä uskon ilmauksia ja tulkintoja. Kielelliset ratkaisut siten ikään kuin paketoivat myös oppia: miten näistä asioista ajatellaan yhteisössä ja miten Raamattua tulkitaan.

Tervehtiminen tietyillä sanoilla, tai tervehtimättömyys, voi siis saada uskonnollisessa yhteisössä sosiaalisten merkitysten lisäksi teologisia merkityksiä. Vanhoillislestadiolaisuuden yhteydessä Jumalan tervettä on pidetty hengellisen vallankäytön ilmentymänä, mutta myös kauniina kristillisenä tervehdyksenä, jonka perimmäinen tarkoitus on hyvää sanomaa välittävä. Mille nämä käsitykset sitten perustuvat? Tässä blogipostauksessa hahmottelen näitä merkityksiä teologisen perinteen näkökulmasta, mutta myös vanhoillislestadiolaisuuteen liittyvinä sosiaalisina tekijöinä lyhyesti. Syvemmälle analyysille ei ole tässä mahdollisuutta, ja siksi tässä olisikin jollekulle hyvä tutkimuskohde.

Mistä tulee tervehdys “Jumalan terve”?

Tulkinnat siitä, mistä tulee tervehdys “Jumalan terve”, vaihtelevat. Alkulähteitä voi olla monia. Epäilemättä tervehdyksellä on myös juuria muissa kristillisissä tervehdyksissä, joista vanhoillislestadiolaisten käyttämä muoto on juuri tähän yhteisöön muotoutunut, ja yhteisöllisiin merkityksiin kiinnittynyt. Esimerkiksi Saksassa käytössä oleva, katolisesta kirkosta alkujaan lähtöisin oleva tervehdys “Grüss Gott”, tai englannin “Goodbye” (God be with ye) eivät enää sisällä uskonnollista merkitystä samoin kuin alkuperäisinä käyttöaikoina. Maailmalla on käytössä paljon Jumalaan viittaavia tervehdyksiä, joissa toivotetaan tavatessa tai hyvästellessä terveyttä, siunausta tai hyvinvointia Jumalan nimissä. Vanhoillislestadiolaiset käyttävät hyvästellessä muotoa “Jumalan rauhaa” tai “Jumalan rauhaan”, ja Amerikan lestadiolaisuudessa “God’s Peace!” toimii tervehdyksenä sekä tavatessa että hyvästellessä.

“Jumalan terve” ei ole kuitenkaan mikä tahansa tervehdys. Eri lestadiolaisuuden haarat käyttävät sitä eri tavoin: jotkut toivottavat sitä tavatessaan kaikille, mutta vanhoillislestadiolaiset käyttävät sitä vain omaan yhteisöön kuuluville ihmisille. Yksi tulkinta on, että tervehdys sisältää kysymyksen “Oletko Jumalassa terve?”, johon samoin vastaamalla todetaan, että tervehtijät ovat samassa oikeaksi pidetyssä uskossa, “Jumalassa terveitä”. Kaanaankielisesti tuo kysymys voisi myös kuulua “Oletko jaksanut kilvoitella?”. Tapaamisessa tärkeämpää kuin maallisten asioiden toteaminen, on hengellisen tilan kysyminen ja sen jakaminen toisen uskovaisen kanssa. Teologisesti ajateltuna tervehdys kiinnittää ihmiset samaan uskoon. Kysymys liittyy vanhoillislestadiolaiseen uskontulkintaan siitä, että usko on henkilökohtainen asia, joka tapahtuu oikeimmin osana “Jumalan valtakunnaksi” ymmärrettyä yhteisöä. Osallisuus tästä yhteisöstä “tunnustetaan” muiden jäsenten toimesta, ja tämä toinen toisensa tunnustaminen oikein uskovaksi toteutuu esimerkiksi tervehdyksessä.

Olisi mielenkiintoista selvittää, mikä on tervehdyksen kehitys, sillä juuria ja perustaa saattaa olla monissa lähteissä. Eräässä tulkinnassa tervehdyksen juuret ovat Raamatussa, mutta on vaikea sanoa missä määrin tervehdys perustuu Raamattuun vai ovatko raamatulliset kytkökset haettu käytännön perusteeksi myöhemmin. Rauhan ja terveyden toivottaminen taloon tullessa on kansaperinteestäkin tuttua, ja sille löytyy Raamatusta vastine. Luukkaan evankeliumissa Jeesus opettaa opetuslapsiaan (Luuk. 10:5-6): “Ja kun tulette johonkin taloon, sanokaa ensiksi ‘Rauha tälle kodille’. Jos siellä on joku, joka on rauhan arvoinen, hän saa teidän toivottamanne rauhan. Ellei ole, toivotuksenne palaa teille”. Tämä kohta ohjaa katsomaan tervehdyksen yleisempää, rauhaa ja hyvää toivottavaa luonnetta.

Raamatussa myös esimerkiksi toisessa Johanneksen kirjeessä, kohta 1:10-11 on ymmärretty yhdeksi tervehdyskäytännön juureksi: “Jos joku tulee teidän luoksenne eikä opeta tällä tavoin, älkää ottako häntä kotiinne älkääkä edes tervehtikö häntä. Se, joka lausuu hänet tervetulleeksi, osallistuu hänen pahoihin tekoihinsa.” Raamatunkohdassa puhutaan toisinuskovien kohtaamisesta sekä siitä, miten toisinuskovia ei tule “tunnustaa” uskoviksi. Jos toisinuskovaa tervehtii, tulee osalliseksi “hänen pahoihin tekoihinsa”. Tämä kohta ohjaa tulkitsemaan sitä, miksi vanhoillislestadiolaiset eivät tervehdi toisin ajattelevaa.

Kuten huomata saattaa, nämä kaksi tervehtimiseen liittyvää raamatunkohtaa ohjaavat erilaiseen tervehtimiskäytäntöön. Olennainen ero on juuri tunnustamisessa: Luukkaan kohdassa rauhan toivotuksen osuminen kohteeseensa ei ole tervehtijästä kiinni. Johanneksen kirjeen kohdassa toisen uskon tunnustaminen tai tunnustamattomuus on nimenomaan tervehtijän vastuulla. Syvällisempään analyysiin näiden kohtien eroista ja taustoista, sekä mahdollisista muista juurista ei tämän kirjoituksen puitteissa ole mahdollisuutta. Kuitenkin molempiin tulkintoihin olen törmännyt lestadiolaisuuden piirissä.

Tervehdyksen sosiaalisia ulottuvuuksia

Kielellisten ja teologisten merkitysten lisäksi tervehdyksellä on monia sosiaalisesti vakiintuneita, uskonnollisesti merkityksellisiä käyttötapoja. Tämä tuttavani kanssa käymäni keskustelu liittyi osaltaan sellaiseen: missä kohden yhteisössä on soveliasta tervehtiä toisinajattelevaa? Kysyy sosiaalista rohkeutta poiketa ryhmässä vallitsevista käyttötavoista, sillä tervehtiminen on rajan merkki, ja sen ylittäminen tai toisin käyttäminen rikkoo yhteisössä miellettyä rajaa. Toisaalta tervehtiminen tietyillä sanoilla saa merkityksiä hyväksynnästä tai hylkäämisestä, ja siksi tervehtimättömyys on voitu kokea hylkäämisenä, vaikka ihmiset muuten käyttäytyisivät ystävällisesti tai samoin kuin ennen. Rajan vetäminen ilmenee juuri hyväksynnän ja hylkäämisen välisissä kokemuksissa, ja näitä molempia kertomuksia löytyy vanhoillislestadiolaisuuden parissa käytävästä verkkokeskustelusta paljon. Tässä esimerkiksi lainaus vuodelta 2005:

Kun on kiusauksissa, miettii että uskallanko tervehtiä Jumalan terveellä. Kun sen kuitenkin, vaikka arkaillen sanoo ja saa samanlaisen vastauksen, niin jo siihen sisältyy lohdun ja rohkaisun sana. Pelkästä tervehdyksestäkin virvoittuu, tulee vahvistetuksi, että vielä minä heikko saan uskoa, vielä kuljen pyhien matkasaatossa.

Epäilemättä, jos tervehdykseen ei vastata tunnustavasti, kokemus voi olla vastakohtainen. Teologiset ja sosiaaliset selitysmallit kytkeytyvät tervehdyksessä toisiinsa, toista ei ole ilman toista. Tervehdyksen taustoista ja kokemuksista avautuu mielenkiintoisia polkuja paitsi tervehdyksen kielellisiin muotoihin ja historiaan, sen teologisiin merkityksiin sekä sosiaalisiin käyttötarkoituksiin, myös tämänhetkisen lestadiolaisuuden eletyn uskon muotoihin.

Kuva: Meri-Anna Hintsala

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