Biological “archives” carry reliable information of past temperatures for all four seasons in Finland

In a joint study with several research groups at the University of Helsinki and Aalto University, we compiled a collection of records on different biological and physical phenomena, to assess their reliability as an indicator of past temperatures for different seasons. This collection included different characteristics of tree rings, and plant and ice phenology. Our assessment showed how different combinations of these temperature indicators provided reliable information on the temperatures of all four seasons, as well as annual temperatures. See the full paper in Plos one.

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