• Photosynthesis

    Optimum model for stomatal control
    Stomatal opening enables photosynthesis but at the same time increases water loss.
    The optimum model for stomatal control defines an optimal strategy for stomatal opening which maximizes the carbon gain and minimizes the loss of water and how this strategy works during a drought period.

    Annual cycle of photosynthetic capacity
    Coniferous trees growing in the boreal and temperate zones have a clear annual cycle of photosynthetic activity. We linked the annual cycle of temperature to the annual cycle of photosynthesis in Scots pine, using a dynamic delay model.

  • Interactions of water and sugar. The physical processes of cell enlargement and cell wall deposition are described by linking them to long- and short-distance water and sugar transport. Long distance transport occurs through the xylem and phloem, while short distance transport is the diffusion or active transport of sugars and water from the phloem and xylem radially to the developing cambium. We are interested in how growth is restricted by photosynthesis rate, soil water potential, transpiration rate, and hydraulic conductance of the xylem and phloem. The real physiological processes behind growth, i.e., cell division, cell wall enlargement due to turgor pressure and cell wall synthesis are modelled in detail. Models: XYLOFON
  • Forest ecosystem gas exhange. SPP, PRELUED


  • LIGNUM is a Functional Structural Plant Model (FSPM) that describes the tree development resulting from growth of individual shoots (primary meristems) and associated thickness growth (secondary meristem), designed for describing the 3D-structure development of trees or other plants. It’s been used for modelling the structure of a variety of species from pine to bearberry. The driving forces behind the model development have been researchers Eero Nikinmaa (Department of Forest Sciences), Risto Sievänen and Jari Perttunen from Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla).  More information: LIGNUM website
  • The CROBAS family consists of dynamic models combining tree and stand structure and function at different spatial and temporal scales and forming a modular, hierarchical structure. Annikki Mäkelä has been working in the development of these models and applications based on them since mid-1980’s in cooperation with many researchers. The models are used in various applications developed for forest management e.g. for timber yield and quality predictions. More information.
  • MicroForest

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