Reading Pottery

by Tuula Tynjä

Differences in texts are traced by reading closely manuscripts and comparing them – this work reveals changing patterns in thinking and society. Ideological, social and economic changes also leave an imprint on material culture, which is the focus of archaeological study. Changes in material culture are traced by examining material remains and comparing them with each other. These remains include various things, like settlement patterns, temples, domestic houses, lithic tools and pottery fragments.  Continue reading Reading Pottery

First Conference on Ancient Arbela: ‘Pre-Islamic History of Erbil’ in Erbil, Iraq, 7–10 April, 2014

by Martti Nissinen

Erbil is the capital of the autonomous region of Iraqi Kurdistan. In the sources of antiquity, it is known as Arbela or Arbail, and it was one of the principal cities of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period. What remains of the ancient city is now buried inside the huge citadel in the heart of the city, under the Citadel Town, dating from the 18th-20th centuries CE and currently being renovated to be a UNESCO world heritage site.  Continue reading First Conference on Ancient Arbela: ‘Pre-Islamic History of Erbil’ in Erbil, Iraq, 7–10 April, 2014

Latin as a Biblical Language

by Tuukka Kauhanen

The Old Testament was written in Hebrew (and partly Aramaic), the New Testament in Greek. That is what we learn in school and read in every introduction to the Bible. However, in recent decades the ancient Bible versions in other languages have gained attention as well, especially in studies concerning the Old Testament, a.k.a. the Hebrew Bible. One cannot totally comprehend the Hebrew Bible without using its oldest translation, the Greek Septuagint. That is because the text of the Hebrew Bible as known to us today from the Hebrew manuscripts contains multiple corruptions.  Continue reading Latin as a Biblical Language

The Academy of Finland's Centre of Excellence, Faculty of Theology, University of Helsinki