## Recoding variables

Examine the frequency distributions of different categorized variables, and

pick a variable to recategorize

(*Transform/Recode/Into Different Variables*). Avoid raising

the level of abstraction too high (ie. too few categories) so that you

don’t lose too much information. Save the command into the Syntax

window by clicking the “Paste” button, and make notes to yourself of

what kind of conversion you did. Remember to rename the value labels

of the variable.

- Recoding Variables in SPSS
- Video: Recode Variables
- See SPSS tutorial on Syntax:
*Help/Tutorial/Working with Syntax* - Videos: Beyond Point and Click: SPSS Syntax

## Cross-tabulation

Crosstabs (aka contingency tables) are used to examine two categorized

variables. You can also

use a continuous variable, but it needs to be categorized

first. (Categorizing a continuous variable will be covered on Day Three.)

Pick two variables that might be dependent on each other in a way that

one could be used to explain the other.

Create a crosstabulation (*Analyze/Descriptive
Statistics/Crosstabs*) where the independent variable is the

row variable, and the dependent variable is the column variable. Select

the percentages along the direction of the independent variable.

How to interpret the resulting table? If there are a lot of cells with

zero count, reconsider the way the variable was recategorized. Think

of alternative ways to recategorize the variable without losing too much

information. Write down your interpretation from the final version of

the table.

- On making and interpreting crosstabs, see
*Help/Tutorial/Crosstabulation Tables* - Cross Tabulation (Wikipedia)
- How to ‘clean’ a cross-tabulation (This page tells to use the independent variable as the column variable, unlike in the exercise above)

## Clustered Bar Graphs

Draw a bar graph based on the crosstabulation you did in the previous

exercise (*Graphs/Legacy Dialogs/Bar/Clustered*). The independent variable

goes into the slot labelled *Category Axis* and the dependent

variable needs to be inserted in the field marked *Define Clusters
by*. Examine the frequencies and write down your interpretation of

the resulting graph.

## The Chi-square Test

Conduct the Chi-square test on the crosstabulation from today’s second exercise,

and think about its interpretation. You may also use some alternate

variables. Write a short analysis based on your interpretations.

- Chi-square test (Oxford Dictionary of Sociology)
- Significance tests (Oxford Dictionary of Sociology)

## Layered Crosstabs

Make a layered crosstab based on the table you made in exercise 2. You

can use a background variable such as gender(gndr), for example. Write a

short summary about your findings. Does the third variable reveal something

about the relationship of the row and column variables?

- On making and interpreting layered crosstabs, see
*Help/Tutorial/Crosstabulation Tables/Adding a Layer Variable*