135. Sosiaalitutkimuksen kvantitatiiviset menetelmät

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4,584 thoughts on “135. Sosiaalitutkimuksen kvantitatiiviset menetelmät

  1. Kvantin välikoe 16.2.2006, Timo Kauppinen.

    Vastaa kaikkiin kolmeen kysymykseen:

    1. Mikä on otannan perustarkoitus ja minkälaiset tekijät vaikuttavat tässä tarkoituksessa onnistumiseen?

    2. Millaisia etuja ja toisaalta puutteita rekisteriaineistoilla on tyypillisesti survey-aineistoihin nähden tieteellisessä tutkimuksessa?

    3. Kuvaile tyypillisiä vastauskato-ongelmia survey-tutkimuksessa. Milloin vastauskato on erityisen ongelmallista?

  2. Kvantin loppukoe 20.4.2006, Timo Kauppinen.

    Vastaa kaikkiin kolmeen kysymykseen:

    1. Mitkä 3 tekijää Alkula ym. esittävät kausaalisen yhteyden empiirisen toteamisen ehtoina, ja kuinka sosiologisessa tutkimuksessa tyypillisesti pyritään vastaamaan näihin? (6 p.)

    2. Tulkitse sanallisesti taulukon 1 sisältö. (5 p.)

    (joo, jos joku muu haluaa piirtää taulukon tähän niin sen tehköön, itse tyydyn toteamaan, että kysessä oli “Taulukko 1. Sukupuolten välinen ero arvioidussa ylemmän korkeakoulututkinnon nettisuoritusajassa, päätoimiseen opiskeluun käytetyt vuodet”, ilmoitettu keskiarvot, keskihajonnat ja N miehiltä, naisilta ja kaikilta yhteensä, taulukon alla t-testin tulokset (t-testisuureen arvo, vapausasteet ja p-arvo).)

    3. Kerro lyhyesti, mitä tarkoitetaan seuraavilla käsitteillä. (5 p.)

    a) muuttuja

    b) frekvenssijakauma

    c) mediaani

    d) perusjoukko

    e) p-arvo

  3. Syksyn 2006 välikoe, Kauppinen:

    Vastaa kaikkiin kysymyksiin

    1) Minkälaiset tekijät vaikuttavat tutkimusaineiston sisäiseen ja ulkoiseen luotettavuuteen?

    2) Kuvaile eri otantamenetelmiä ja perusteita niiden soveltamiseen.

    3. Selitä lyhyesti seuraavat käsitteet:
    a) Henkilörekisteri
    b) Kokonaisaineisto
    c) Fokusryhmä (Surveyn suunnittelussa)

  4. Syksyn 2007 välikoe 16.10., tentaattorina Mikko Laaksonen.

    Vastaa lyhyehköin esseevastauksin kaikkiin neljään kysymykseen:

    1. Aineiston edustavuus kvantitatiivisessa ja kvalitatiivisessa tutkimuksessa

    2. Teoriat kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen eri vaiheissa

    3. Valitse kaksi luennolla/tenttikirjoissa esitettyä otantamenetelmää ja vertaile niiden vahvuuksia ja heikkouksia

    4. Muuttujan validiteetti ja validiteetti

    Aikaa olisi voinut olla enemmän, koska puolitoista tuntia oli aika vähän neljälle kohtalaisen laajalle kysymykselle. Vikassa kysymyksessä oli tarkoitus tarkastella kyseisiä käsiteitä laajemmin, eikä pelkästään määrillä niitä.

  5. Kevään 2008 loppukoe, tentaattorina kaikesta päätellen Alkula.

    Vastaa neljään kysymykseen!

    1. Ammattirakenteen ja sosiaalisen aseman muutosta selvittäneessä tutkimuksessa kysyttiin mm. mihin yhteiskuntaluokkaan vastaaja katsoi lähinnä kuuluvansa ja kysyttiin myös, kokiko vastaaja tulonjaon oikeudenmukaiseksi vai ei.

    Tuloksia analysoitaessa saatiin alla oleva taulukko ja siihen liittyvä testi.

    [ristiintaulukko ja khi^2-testin tulokset]

    a) Mikä on ollut khin neliötestin nollahypoteesi ja sen
    vaihtoehtoinen hypoteesi?
    b) Mitä nollahypoteesille tapahtuu tulosten perusteella ja mitä testitulos merkitsee?
    c) Anna taulukon sisällölle sosiologinen tulkinta.
    d) Mainitse vähintään yksi muuttuja, jonka vakioinnilla voisit pyrkiä antamaan tulkinnalle lisäsisältöä.

    2. Mitä kvantitatiivisessa sosiaalitutkimuksessa tarkoitetaan seuraavilla käsitteillä?
    a) kahden muuttujan lineaarinen yhteys
    b) täsmennystyyppinen elaboraatio
    c) Mann-Whitneyn U-testi?

    3. Mitkä seuraavista väitteistä ovat tosia, mitkä epätosia?

    3a) Otoksessa on 2000 henkilöä, ja heiltä kysytään, mitä puoluetta he äänestäisivät, jos eduskuntavaalit pidettäisiin huomenna. Puoluetta A ilmoittaa kannattavansa 28% ja puoluetta B 5 % vastaajista.
    Väite: Puolue A:n kannattajien osuudelle laskettu 95%:n luottamusväli on pienempi kuin puolue B:n kannattajille laskettu.

    Khiin neliö -riippumattomuustestissä tarkastellaan muuttujien A ja B muodostamaa ristiintaulukointia. Käytetään 5%:n merkitsevyystasoa. Saadaan khi^2=16,825, df=6, p<0,05. 14%:ssa ruuduista odotettu frekvenssi oli <5. Pienin odotettu frekvenssi oli 2,2.
    Väitteet:
    3b) Taulukon muodostavat muuttujat ovat molemmat kolmiluokkaisia.
    3c) Taulukon muodostavista muuttujista toinen on kolmiluokkainen, toinen neliluokkainen.
    3d) Taulukon muodostavista muuttujista toinen on dikotomia, toinen seitsenluokkainen.
    3e) Nollahypoteesi hylätään.
    3f) Testauksen edellytykset olivat voimassa.

    4a) Mitä summamuuttujalla tarkoitetaan ja miksi summamuuttujia käytetään kvantitatiivisessa sosiaalitutkimuksessa?
    4b) Mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat summamuuttujan laatuun ja miten summamuuttujan laatua mitataan?

    5. Sinulle esitellään Suomen kuntia koskevia tutkimustuloksia. Tulosten saamiseen on käytetty tulomomenttikorrelaatiota.

    Tuloksen esittelyssä annetaan kertoimen arvo ja kuvio 1.

    r(xy)=-0,41, [en saa tuohon alaindeksiä] jossa
    x on kunnan asukastiheys (as/km^2)
    y on maa- ja metsätaloudessa työskentelevän väestön prosenttiosuus kunnan työikäisestä väestöstä.

    Kuvio 1. Suomen kuntien maa- ja metsätaloudessa työskentelevän väestön prosenttiosuus kunnan työikäisestä väestöstä ja kunnan asukastiheys, Suomen kunnat 1993

    [sirontakuvio]

    a) Kerro, mitä kertoimen arvo merkitsee.
    b) Hyväksytkö esitetyn tuloksen oikeana? Jos et, miten jatkat saadaksesi oikean tuloksen?

  6. Välitentti, syksy 08

    mm. käsitteen määrittelyä; deduktiivinen päättely, validiteetti ym. sellaista muistaakseni. Lisäksi piti tunnistaa erilaisten muuttujien mitta-asteikkoja, ja kertoa mikä luku (esim. voiko ottaa mediaanin/moodin/keskiarvon) on niille sopiva. Piti myös kertoa miten itse mittaisi työssäuupumista. Siinä kaikki mitä tentistä muistan 🙂

  7. 1.Piti kertoa mitä testiä käyttäisi, jos haluaa tarkastella kahden muuttujan keskiarvojen eroavuutta, oli kolme kohtaa jossa erityyppiset muuttujat, joita en tarkkaan muista, mutta olivat tyyliä: toinen välimatka-asteikollinen ja toinen suhdeasteikollinen, normaalijakaumaoletus ei täyty, n=29.

    Sitten piti määritellä ainakin replikaatio ja osittaiskorrelaatio

    2. Kahden muuttujan yhteisvaihtelua oli kuvattu, ja tehtävässä oli joitakin lukuja, cronbachin alfaa, reliabiliteetti, korrelaatiokerroin, joista piti tehdä päätelmiä

    3. Oli kaksi taulukkoa, joissa toisessa oli tutkittu kahden muuttujan välistä yhteyttä ristiintaulukoimalla ja toisessa otettu kolmas muuttuja mukaan (elaboroitu). taulukoita piti sanallisesti tulkita ja lopulta kertoa ja perustella, mistä elaboraatiotyypistä oli kyse

    4. Miten tutkija voi perustella kahdella muuttujalla olevan kausaalinen yhteys?

  8. Lopputentti 8.12.2009

    koepapaeria ei saanut matkaan, mutta koetan muistella suttupaperini perusteella mitä kysyttiin:

    teht. 1. Mitä menetelmää voisi käyttää, että varmistuisi seuraavien muuttujien samankaltainen yhteys myös perusjoukossa:

    a) seitettävä suhdelukuasteikollinen normaalisti jakautunut muuttuja, vertailuryhmiä 2.

    b) selitettävä suhdelukuasteikollinen, selvästi normaalijakaumasta poikkeava, jakaumat samanlaisia, otoskoko 28

    c) selitettävä likert-tyyppinen, otoskoko kaikissa kolmessa vertailuryhmässä yli 200

    Sitten piti selittää lyhyesti seuraavat termit:

    d) täsmentävä elaboraatio

    e) epä-lineaarinen yhteys

    f) regressiokerroin b

    Tehtävää kaksi en ole näköjään edes hahmotellut…

    teht. 3: Laadi kuvitteellinen, mutta täydellinen prosenttitaulukko, jossa tulojen avulla elaboroidaan seuraavaa rippuvuutta “Iäkkäämmät asuvat väljemmin kuin nuoremmat” (tjsp). Otoskoko on 1200, muuttujat korkeintaan 3 -luokkaisia.

    teht.4: Kausaalipäätelmät kvantitatiivisessa tutkimuksessa. Jos tutkija väittää, että on kahden muuttujan välillä vallitsee kausaalinen yhteys, miten hänen pitää menetellä perustellessaan väitettään.

    Sori, hieman puutteellinen tiedonanto…saa täydentää!

  9. tehtävä 2 yllä olevaan tenttiin:

    sanallista tulkintaa
    x= ikä
    y= ympäristö mielipide

    x arvoksi annettiin 0.90 ja y:n arvoksi 0.35

    a) mitä ovit päätellä x:n reliabiliteetista tai y:n cronbahin a:n arvona

    b) Rxy = -0.50 piti selventää
    c) ylemmän arvon luottamus väli on 1% mitä tämä tarkoittaa

  10. Välitentti 25.2 Alkula

    1. Määrittele klassinen koetilanne ja miksi se on usein ongelmallinen sosiaalitieteissä.

    2. Määrittele a) johdattelevat kysymykset haastattalulomaketta suunniteltaessa b) hypoteesi c) esitutkimus

    3. Miten tekisit tutkimuksen yhteiskunnallisesta aktiivisuudesta. Mitä osa-alueita mukaan? Valitse joku osa-alue ja operationalisoi käsitteet. Tee kolme mallikysymystä haastattelulomakkeeseen.

    4. Sekundaariaineistot vs. itse kerätyt-aineistot

  11. 10/2010 välitentti,Purhonen
    Kysymykset menivät suurin piirtein näin:
    1.Otannan tyypit ja niiden perusteet

    2.Määrittele
    a)ekologinen virhepäätelmä
    b)perusjoukko
    c)deskriptiivinen tutkimus
    d)validiteetti

    3.Vertaile itse kerätyn surveyn ja rekisteriaineiston heikkouksia ja vahvuuksia

    4. Tutkimuksen/koetilanteen eettiset normit

  12. 31.3.11 Välitentti. Mikko Aaltonen.

    Vastaa kaikkiin.

    1. Määrittele lyhyesti seuraavat käsitteet
    a) Mediaani
    b) Klassinen koeasetelma
    c) Ekologinen erhe/harha
    d) Reliabiliteetti

    2. Mikä on otannan perustarkoitus? Pohdi onnistuneen otannan edellytyksiä ja tekijöitä, jotka voivat vaikuttaa otoksen laatuun.

    3. Mitkä ovat muuttujien neljä mittaustasoa? Kuvaa eri mittaustasojen muuttujia ja niiden eroja keksimiesi esimerkkien avulla, ja kerro kullekin mittaustasolle sopivat keskiluvut.

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