Examining the Results

Once the anion and cation analyses are completed it must be verified that the found ions explain all the findings made in the preliminary tests and preparation:

-the colours of the solutions and precipitates before mixing

-pH of the solution

-carbonate and sulfide ions cannot appear in an acidic solution

-the formation of a carbonate precipitate in the preparation of the alkali salt solution

-the solubility tests of the sample mixture

-the sample mixtures reaction with sulfuric acid

-the flame test of the original sample mixture

-the reactions of the alkali salt solution and carbonate precipitate with potassium permanganate in a sulfuric acid solution

-the reaction of the alkali salt solution with diphenylamine

The necessary information for verifying the findings are found in the reaction information section, where the colours of compounds, solubilities, protolysis, complex formation and redox properties are listed.

The analysis is complete only when you can be certain of the results based on the accumulated information. Additional test can be made for ions that feel unsure. Ammonium, sodium, potassium and nitrate ions are primarily determined with individual tests, whose reliable interpretation requires practice. Thus especially for these tests, repeating them can be beneficial, as well as consulting a lab partner if necessary. Additional reactions can be applied from the reaction information section or looked for in qualitative analysis literature and web resources.