Artikkeli 2, GIS on elämä

Toisena kurssilla käsiteltynä artikkelina oli Lloyd P. Queenin ja Charles R. Blinnin The Basics of Geographic Information Systems (1993).  Heidän mukaansa GIS on yhtä kuin data, ohjelmistot ja käyttäjät, vaikka usein GIS:sin katsotaankin virheellisesti olevan pelkkää dataa. Kuitenkin jo nimi Geographic Information System kertoo, että kyse on paikkatieto järjestelmästä, tai systeemistä, ja järjestelmässä on yleensä useampia osia. GIS:issä käyttäjät ovat avainasemassa, sillä he kehittävät käytettävät ohjelmistot joilla dataa luodaan ja muokataan. Lyhyesti sanottuna GIS:siä ei olisi, jos yksikin osa kokonaisuudesta puuttuisi.

Oikeastaan artikkeli ei antanut minulla mitään uutta siihen nähden, että mitä vastaisin geoinformatiikan määritelmää kysyttäessä. Artikkeli kyllä selkeytti ja tiivisti asioita ollen samalla selkein tieteellinen artikkeli, jonka olen tähän mennessä lukenut. Vastaisin lyhyesti geoinformatiikan olevan paikkaan sidotun tiedon käsittelemistä tietokoneympäristössä erilaisten ohjelmien ja käyttäjien avulla. Lisäkysymyksiä esitettäessä monisanaisempikin tulkinta ja selittäminen olisi mahdollista.

Suurin ero kartan tekemisessä geoinformatiikan avulla tai ilman sitä on se, että geoinformatiikan kanssa kaikki on paljon helpompaa ja nopeampaa. Todellakin kaikki, sillä aineistojen ollessa tiedostoina niitä voidaan jakaa useille eri käyttäjille ja ohjelmistoille nopeasti ja vaivattomasti, tietoa on helppo lisätä, poistaa ja muokata ja tuotettuja karttoja pystytään levittämään nopeasti suurellekin yleisellö. Kuitenkin helppouden myötä tulee myös ongelma. Nimittäin geoinformatiikan avulla asioita on helppo manipuloida ja vääristellä tarkoituksella, tai sitten vahingossa painaa väärää nappia ja saada aikaan varsin harhaanjohtava lopputulos. Perinteisessä kartografiassa voidaan toki tehdä samaa, mutta paljon hitaammin, eikä manipuloitu aineisto välttämättä leviä ikinä kovin laajalle, kun tekniikka on aikaa vievä ja levitysmahdollisuudet rajalliset.

Perinteisten karttojen ongelmana on jollain tasolla myös ihmisten kartanlukutaidottomuus. Vaikka kartta olisi kuinka yleistetty ja helppotajuinen ja legendakin kartografin mielestä suorastaan täydellinen suoritus, niin aina löytyy joku, jolle kartta on aivan vieras käsite ja sitten ollaan hukassa. Geoinformatiikka sanana ja ilmiönä kuulostaa lähinnä joltakin, jota harrastetaan maatieteiden laitosten syvimmissä ja pimeimmissä tietokoneluokissa, eli ei siis sekään välttämättä erityisen kansantajuista. Kuitenkin Panu Lammi esittää blogissaan ajatuksen, että geoinformatiikan avulla voidaan tuottaa sovelluksia ja palveluita, joita käyttäessä valistumaton ei välttämättä edes tajua olevansa tekemisissä juurikin geoinformatiikan kanssa. Tälläisiä sovelluksia ovat esimerkiksi internetin erilaiset karttapalvelut, joista löytyy niin reittitietoja kuin vaikkapa vähittäiskaupan palveluita. Kaupallisiakin versioita on saatavilla esimerkiksi erilaisten autonavigaattoreiden ja matkapuhelinsovellusten muodossa, ja näistä molemmat alkavat olla varsin arkipäiväistyneitä.

Digitaalisissa kartoissa ja siten geoinformatiikassa käytetään kahta erilaista tapaa mallintaa asioita ja ne ovat rasterit ja vektorit. Artikkelissa näitä kahta esitellään jonkin verran. Rasterimuotoinen aineisto koostuu pikseleistä, jotka saavat rasterinsa, eli värinsä tai kuvionsa, sen mukaan mitä pikseli sisältää eniten. Näin ollen kahden alueen rajamailla oleva pikseli saa sen arvon jota pikselissä on enemmän. Jos esimerkiksi peltoa on 2/3 ja metsää 1/3 pikselistä niin pikseli merkitään pelloksi.  Jos kartantekijä niin haluaa on myös mahdollista käyttää ”yhdistelmäpikseleitä” eli sellaisia, jotka saavat oman yhdistelmärasterinsa. Tälläinen voisi olla vaikkapa pikseli, jonka alueella on suota ja metsää, jolloin pikseli voisi kuvata soista metsää. Pikseleiden koko riippuu todella paljon käytetystä aineistosta ja halutusta tarkkuudesta, joten toisinaan pikselit saattavat yleistää aluetta todella paljon. Lisäksi pikselit eivät välttämättä ole se kaikista esteettisin tai luettavin vaihtoehto, sillä jossain vaiheessa pikseleitä ei voi enää zoomata.

Vektoreita käytettäessä aineisto kuvataan pisteinä, viivoina ja alueina, joita voidaan zoomailla periaatteessa loputtomasti. Vektorimuotoisen aineiston tuottaminen on varsin vaivalloista, muotta jälkikäteen muokkaaminen onnistuu onneksi helposti. Lisäksi vektoriaineston etuna on se, että yleistävyyttä pystyy itse säätelemään paremmin kuin rasteriaineistossa sen mukaan, mikä sopii tarkoitukseen parhaiten. Periaatteessa jokaisen yksittäisen kiven ja kannon saa kartalle merkittyä, mutta on aivan eri asia kannaattaako se kartografisesti. Yleisimpiä vektorimuotoisia kohteita ovat pistein ja viivoin kuvatut ilmiöt, kuten vaikkapa bussipysäkit ja bussien reitit tai tieverkko.

Artikkelissa mainitaan myös overlay-analyysi, johon tällä kurssilla ei ole erityisesti perehdytty.  Overlay-analyysissa useita karttoja tai karttatasoja asetetaan päällekkäin, jolloin voidaan tutkia esimerkiksi korrelaatiota. Geoinformatiikkaa käyttämällä overlay-analyysia  on todella helppo tehdä, mutta kuten Ainokaisa Tarnanen blogissaan muistuttaa, niin analyysi onnistuu myös perinteisillä paperikartoilla. Tosin paperikarttoja käytettäessä tarvitaan apuvälineitä, kuten valopöytää tai sitten karttojen on oltava tehdyt jollekin läpinäkyvälle pohjalle, kuten piirtoheitin kalvolle. Lisäksi perinteisissä kartoissa päällekkäisten karttojen määrä voi muodostua ongelmaksi varsin nopeasti, kun turhia karttaelementtejä ei saa poistettua näkyvistä. GIS-ohjelmistoja käytettäessä päällekkäin ladottavien tasojen määrä on periaatteessa rajoittamaton, mutta käytännössä tietyn pisteen jälkeen selvyys kärsii niin pahasti, ettei informaatio ainakaan lisäänny.

Tiivistettynä GIS on tietokoneistettu useamman tekijän systeemi paikkatiedon säilyttämiseen, muokkaamiseen ja julkaisemiseen.

Lähteet:

Lammi, P. (2012). Artikkeli 2. Muistutus geoinformatiikan perusteista. 13.3.2012

<https://blogs.helsinki.fi/panlammi/2012/03/05/artikkeli-2-muistutus-geoinformatiikan-perusteista/>

Tarnanen, A. (2012) Artikkeli 2. Geoinformatiikan perusteita. 14.3.2012

<https://blogs.helsinki.fi/atarnane/2012/03/01/artikkeli-2-geoinformatiikan-perusteita/>

Queen, L.P. & C.R. Blinn (1993). The Basics of Geographic Information Systems.

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