At the Frontiers of Humanity: Extreme Necessity in the History of Ethics, Law and Politics, 300–1600 is a four-year research project funded by the Academy of Finland.
The  project is led by senior lecturer Virpi Mäkinen.
The research environment of the project is the Faculty of Theology at the University of Helsinki.

Photo: the doctoral conferment dinner, June 2023, the Faculty of Theology. Left Prof. Annabel Brett (University of Cambridge) who was conferment to an Honorary Doctorate. She is also a member of project’s advisory board. Other from left to right: Heikki Haara, Virpi Mäkinen, Ritva Palmén, and Mikko Posti.

Extreme Necessity Poster-VALMIS-KUVATEKSTI