Vesiliukoiset vitamiinit

Kirjoittajat: Annika Korhonen ja Emmi Nieminen

Vesiliukoisiin vitamiineihin kuuluvat C-vitamiini sekä kaikki B-ryhmän vitamiinit eli B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotiini ja foolihappo. Ne eivät rasvaliukoisten vitamiinien tavoin varastoidu elimistöön, joten niitä on saatava säännöllisesti ravinnosta. Poikkeuksena on kuitenkin B12, jonka varastot riittävät useaksi vuodeksi. Ravinnosta C-vitamiinia saa sitrushedelmistä, kasviksista ja marjoista, B-vitamiineja saa liha-, maito- ja täysjyväviljavalmisteista. B12-vitamiinia on ainoastaan eläinkunnan tuotteissa, joten vegaaneille suositellaan B12-vitamiinilisää. Finravinto 2007 –tutkimuksen mukaan suomalaiset saavat päivittäisestä ravinnosta riittävästi kaikkia muita vesiliukoisia vitamiineja paitsi foolihappoa, jonka saanti voisi olla suurempaa erityisesti naisilla.

Terveysväitteet

EFSA on hyväksynyt terveysväitteitä kaikille vesiliukoisille vitamiineille.

C-vitamiinille sallittuja terveysväitteitä ovat: immuunijärjestelmän normaalin toiminnan ylläpito fyysisen suorituksen aikana ja sen jälkeen, kollageenin muodostus verisuonissa, luissa, rustossa, ikenissä, hampaissa ja ihossa, energia-aineenvaihduntaan osallistuminen, hermoston toiminnan tukeminen, psykologisten toimintojen edistäminen, antioksidanttivaikutus, väsymyksen ja heikotuksen vähentäminen sekä ei-hemiraudan imeytymisen lisääminen.

B-vitamiinien terveysväitteet koskevat yleensä energia-aineenvaihduntaan osallistumista, hermoston toiminnan tukemista, väsymyksen ja heikotuksen vähentämistä ja psykologisten toimintojen edistämistä. Lisäksi useilla B-vitamiineilla on hyväksytty terveysväite koskien ihon ja limakalvojen kunnon sekä punasolujen toiminnan ylläpitoa.

Kadonneiden terveysväitteiden metsästys

Lähdimme tutkimusretkelle Viikin Prismaan tarkoituksenamme etsiä B-ja C-vitamiineja sisältäviä funktionaalisia elintarvikkeita. Törmäsimmekin muutamiin tuotteisiin ja terveysväittämiin. Poimimme tähän mielenkiintoisimmat. Mehuhyllyllä koimme pettymyksen, sillä emme löytäneet yhdestäkään mehupurkista terveysväitettä. Muutamia ravitsemusväitteitä sentään löytyi. Marli Vital –granaattiomenajuomapurkissa on maininta ”sisältää runsaasti C-vitamiinia”, mutta terveysväittämiä on esitelty vain tuotteen kotisivuilla.

Marli

Kylmähyllyllä onneksi tärppäsi, ja käteen tarttui Gefilus-mehu, jonka kyljessä komeili terveysväite: ”– sisältää runsaasti C-ja D-vitamiineja, jotka ylläpitävät kehon puolustusjärjestelmän normaalia toimintaa.”  Viereisellä hyllyllä kilpaileva tuote Danone Actimel –tehojuoma markkinoi näin: ”B6- ja D-vitamiini tukevat kehon luonnollista vastustuskykyä.” Elovena välipalajuoma luottaa terveysväitteiden sijaan mielikuviin. C-vitamiinia 100 % päivän saantisuosituksesta sisältävän juoman paketissa nimittäin lukee: ”Tämä sametinpehmeä, elinvoimaa hehkuva Elovena välipalajuoma tekee olosi tarmokkaaksi ja saa päiväsi maistumaan auringolta.”

Varsinaisista elintarvikkeista löydettyjen terveysväitteiden saalis jäi laihaksi, joten päätimme siirtyä tutkimaan pilleripurkkeja. Suuntasimme siis ravintolisähyllylle sekä lopuksi Yliopiston Apteekin vitamiini- ja hivenaineosastolle. B-active-poretabletit sisältävät kaikkia B-vitamiineja sekä C-vitamiinia. Tuotteen terveysväite on hieman arveluttava: ”Lasillisesta raikkaan poreilevaa B-active-juomaa saa B-vitamiineja stressinhallintaan, runsaasti piristävää C-vitamiinia –” Stressinhallinta ei kuulu B-vitamiinien hyväksyttyjen terveysväitteiden listaan, mutta psykologisten toimintojen edesauttaminen on kuitenkin siihen liittyvä. Xylisweet Acerola –C-vitamiinitableteista löytyy useampi terveysväite: ”C-vitamiini on tehokas antioksidantti, joka ylläpitää vastustuskykyä, tehostaa raudan imeytymistä vereen sekä edistää ihon hyvinvointia.” Femibion-raskausvitamiini sisältää foolihappoa, josta esitetään kaksi terveysväitettä: ”Folaatti edistää raskaudenaikaista kudosten kasvua ja normaalia veren muodostumista.”

Sokerina pohjalla löytyipä terveysväitteitä parista yllättävästäkin tuotteesta.

Red Bull –energiajuomatölkin kyljessä huomiota herätti teksti  ”kehitetty erityisesti parantamaan suorituskykyä, lisää keskittymis- ja reaktiokykyä”. Juoma sisältää B3-, B5-, B6- ja B12-vitamiineja. Mietimme, saako energiajuomista esittää terveysväitteitä, koska tuotteessa on kuitenkin piristäviä aineita, ja terveysväitteet voivat rohkaista liialliseen käyttöön. Red Bullin kotisivuilla tuotetta tituleerataan jopa funktionaaliseksi juomaksi.

Forsman Mate Kuuma Tanssi –teestä sanotaan seuraavaa: ”Runsaasti C-vitamiinia, poistaa voimattomuutta, virkistää ja lisää kylläisyyden tunnetta. Erinomainen ’juhlimisen jälkeen’.” C-vitamiinin kokonaismäärää tuotteessa ei ilmoitettu paketissa, joten väittämät ovat kyseenalaisia. Sallittua tai ei, tuote ainakin herätti hilpeyttä.

Yhteenvetona voisi sanoa, että vesiliukoisia vitamiineja sisältäviä funktionaalisia elintarvikkeita on melko vähän tai ainakaan näiden vitamiinien terveysväitteitä ei juurikaan hyödynnetä.Syynä voisi olla näiden väitteiden huono markkina-arvo verrattuna esimerkiksi kolesterolia alentaviin tuotteisiin tai yksinkertaisesti se, että suomalaiset saavat vesiliukoisia vitamiineja riittävästi normaalista ravinnosta, eikä tarvetta niitä sisältäville terveysvaikutteisille elintarvikkeille ole.

 Lähteet

http://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/kotisivut/tk.koti?p_artikkeli=seh00151

http://www.terveyskirjasto.fi/terveyskirjasto/tk.koti?p_artikkeli=dlk00788

http://www.kasvikset.fi/WebRoot/1033640/Page.aspx?id=1048158

http://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/78088/2008b23.pdf

EU Register on nutrition and health claims

4,284 thoughts on “Vesiliukoiset vitamiinit

  1. Vaikka vesiliukoisia vitamiineja saadaan tarpeeksi jo päivittäisestä ravinnosta, on ruoka-/juomatehtailijoilla silti jokin kaupallinen syy lisätä näitä tuotteisiinsa. Kumpi on teidän mielestänne kuluttajan kannalta houkuttelevampaa: käyttää tuotteissa suoria terveysväitteitä vitamiineista vai mielikuvia, kuten esimerkissänne Elovena välipalajuomassa?

    • Mielestämme mielikuvien käyttäminen on houkuttelevampaa, sillä ne ovat kuluttajan kannalta konkreettisempia ja saavat hänet luultavasti enemmän kiinnostumaan tuotteesta kuin pelkkä fakta. Esimerkiksi “tekee olosi tarmokkaaksi” on värikkyytensä vuoksi tehokkaampi ilmaus kuin “auttaa jaksamaan”.

  2. Kuinka helposti hauduketuotteissa kuten teessä tai mate-esimerkissä pystytään määrittämään tuotteen vitamiinipitoisuus? Olettaisi, että haudutusaika ja -lämpötila, sekä kuivan tuotteen määrä suhteessa veteen vaikuttaa suurestikin nautittavan tuotteen vitamiinipitoisuuteen.
    Tutkimassanne tuotteessa ei ilmeisestikään varsinaisesti käytetty terveysväittämää, vaikka C-vitamiini olikin mainittu – puuttuihan pakkausselosteesta kaikki tarvittavat lisätiedot. Onko tiedossanne hauduketuotteissa, joilla olisi EFSA:n hyväksymä terveysväite vesiliukoisille vitamiineille?

    • Olet oikeassa, että teen vitamiinipitoisuus on varmasti hankala määrittää, koska mainitsemasi asiat vaikuttavat c-vitamiinin pitoisuuteen ja lisäksi kuumennus tuhoaa sitä, mikä tekee pitoisuuden määrittämisestä entistäkin hankalampaa.
      Tiedossamme ei ole yhtään hauduketuotetta, jolla olisi EFSA:n hyväksymä terveysväite koskien vesiliukoisia vitamiineja.

  3. Löysitte terveysväitteitä myös energiajuomasta ja pohditte saako niitä esittää, koska tuotteessa on kuitenkin piristäviä aineita. Tätä ei ole lainsäädännöllä estetty, ainoastaan alkoholia (yli 1,2 %) sisältävistä elintarvikkeista ei saa esittää terveysväitteitä. Piristävä aine energiajuomassa on kofeiini. Viime luennolla kerroin, että kofeiinista on EFSAn positiivisia mielipiteitä. EU ei kuitenkaan ole vielä sallinut kofeiiniin liittyviä terveysväitteitä, koska vaarana on juuri epäilemänne innostaminen liikakäyttöön ja sen myötä haittavaikutuksiin erityisisti lapsilla ja nuorilla.

  4. Luulen, että B- ja C-vitamiinin terveysväitteitä ei käytetä siksi, että niitä ei varsinaisesti tarvitse perustella ihmisille. Tuntuu siltä, että on niiden terveyshyödyt ovat melko yleisesti tiedossa, ja siksi ostopäätöksen tekemiseen riittää, että näkee esimerkiksi merkinnän “runsaasti c-vitamiinia”.
    Esimerkiksi mehuissa olevat merkinnät vitamiini-pitoisuuksista voivat ohjata ihmisten ajattelua siihen suuntaan, että näitä mehuja pidetään eräänlaisina terveysjuomina ja niitä tulee litkityksi liikaa siinä mielessä, että niissä on usein paljon energiaa, joten kaloreita kertyy huomaamatta ja janojuomaksi käytettynä ne aiheuttavat ylimääräisiä happohyökkäyksiä vaarantaen näin terveyttä.

  5. Vitamiinien kohdalla kaupallisesta näkökulmasta katsottuna varmaankin usein riittävät ravitsemusväitteet. Ihmiset mieltävät tuotteen terveelliseksi kun siinä lukee ”sisältää runsaasti c-vitamiinia”. Usein varmaan jääkin huomioimatta muut ravitsemukselliset ominaisuudet. Mate-teestä vielä, oliko teessä vain mate-kasvia vai oliko lisänä jotain muuta tee-lajia? Omasta kokemuksesta voin sanoa, että mate-tee on erittäin piristävää (Forsmanin teetä en ole maistanut). Sen myös sanotaan sisältävän paljon erilaisia ravintoaineita. Olisi mielenkiintoista tutkia, miten kuuman veden lisäys vaikuttaa ravintoaineisiin.

    • Mate-tee sisältää mate-kasvin lehtien lisäksi mangoa, ananasta, papaijaa, kvitteniä ja kukan terälehtiä.

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