The aim of the “Mind, Society and Religion in the Biblical World” section is to bring insights and theories developed in the cognitive science of religion into play in the study of biblical materials. The cognitive science of religion (CSR) emerged in the 1990s as a multidisciplinary field that examines cross-culturally recurrent patterns in religious thought, experience, and practice. CSR draws on insights about the architecture of the human mind to provide explanations of religious phenomena, tapping into various cognitive disciplines, such as artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive anthropology, developmental psychology, and experimental psychology. CSR has opened up new ways of understanding religiosity as well as the emergence and development of religious movements, sometimes challenging the established theories in classical anthropology and comparative religion.