Antibiotics have made it possible for people to live longer, healthier lives. Currently, however, Western medicine is facing a serious threat as bacteria are developing resistance to antibiotics and there are few new drugs in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The World Health Organisation calls for urgent action to tackle this concern. Social sciences can contribute to the problem with new perspectives and solutions. This project suggests that though mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are biological, its spread results from social practices. The project will produce new knowledge about the various practices that may contribute to the spread of AMR, and identify ways how it can be tackled. It employs a range of methods to look at different geographical sites where AMR is present (in Finland, Benin and India). This knowledge can be utilized in national and international health policy and medical research.