With COP26 so prominently in the headlines it is prescient to consider the effects of the Montreal Protocol limiting ozone depleting chemicals as both a success in halting the increase in UV radiation & as a global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The UNEP EEAP 2020 Update has just been published in Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. This year the assessment includes a section & supplement on the implications of these environmental effects for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Changes in UV radiation and climate have the potential to alter habitat suitability for plant species in terrestrial ecosystems.
Species native to Antarctic are adapted to live under the extreme conditions, but continued changes in UV radiation and climate in this environment could exceed the limits of tolerances and survival of many native species of animal and plants.
Stratospheric ozone depletion affects the Antarctic climate with direct consequences for the environment of terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems.
Plant responses to UV radiation are contingent on other changing environmental conditions, and these effects collectively influence crop quality and production
Acclimation of plants to changes in UV radiation may depend on the adaptation of species to grow in more open or shaded environments and could lead to shifts in functional diversity as vegetative cover changes with climate change and land use.
The sensitivity of pollen to UV radiation and its preservation in the fossil record make it attractive for use in reconstructing UV radiation from the geological past.
Technological advances are allowing for the use of UV radiation to improve agricultural sustainability.
To find out more the open-access publication: Neale, et al. (2021) Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and interactions with climate: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, Update 2020. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/s43630-020-00001-x
The 2019 Update on the 2018 Quadrennial Assessment by the UNEP Environmental Effects Panel assessing how climate change, ozone and UV-B radiation interact is now published in Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences.
Bernhard et al., (2020), Environmental effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation and interactions with climate change: UNEP Environmental Effects Assessment Panel, update 2019. Photochemical & Photobiological SciencesDOI: 10.1039/d0pp90011g
The Panel met in Alexandria on the South Island of New Zealand in September-October 2019 to consider the latest research into these effects on climate, human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem, materials, pollution, and biogeochemical cycling; as well as cross-cutting factors affecting all of these global concerns.
This year 2020, we will reconvene in September to consider what has been a very unusual year for ozone depletion and climate interactions in both the northern and southern hemispheres.
We are grateful to a grant from HiLIFE Grand Challenges, Biological Resilience Seed Funding, allowing us to start work on the project: Surviving on the edge – trait syndromes that facilitate northerly species-range expansion.
This project will allow us to utilise a unique field-trial of Fagus sylvatica (European beech) at the University of Helsinki – far beyond the north-eastern limit of its range. Using such trials, we can compare the traits of populations in new potentially stressful environments, giving us the tools to forecast how they will respond to climate change and potentially exploit more northerly regions of Europe.
In addition to field data, the project will test how trait information can be inserted into species distribution models. We will bring together experts in the field from Helsinki and beyond, to discuss how best to develop such models to provide informed forecasts of future species distributions. Armed with this knowledge, we will consider how policy makers, foresters, and conservation bodies might utilise this information in their work.
During the 3rd week of October at the University of Helsinki we ran an international course which considered how plant responses to light are mediated by environmental factors and the implications of climate change for plants’ capacity to adjust to their light environment. The course, organised on behalf of the Doctoral Programme in Plant Sciences (DPPS), was attended by 13 visiting teachers and PhD students from all around Europe, in addition to the local participants from the University of Helsinki.
With the objective of understanding how plants scale their responses across levels of organisation, and respond to light over the appropriate time-scale for their environment, there were plenty of opportunities for students and teachers to develop inter-disciplinary knowledge and collaborations during the course.
We started the week considering photoreceptors and cell-cell signalling, and gradually scaled-up to look at the photosystem and chloroplast responses, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of photoprotection, the use of light in the timing of growth and flowering, and finally, plant traits, ecological and ecosystem levels. A breadth of expertise was provided by an outstanding team of research leaders both from Helsinki and around Europe, giving really engaging lectures and stimulating discussions among the group.
The international participants rounded off the week with a visit to Lammi Biological Station to experience the Finnish forest, lake and hospitality!
This year Janet Bornman, Paul Barnes, Carlos Ballaré, Sharon Robinson and myself were particularly tasked with understanding how plant-level effects on biodiversity and key ecological processes scale-up to the ecosystem level. We also focussed on crosscutting themes affecting not only terrestrial ecosystems, but mankind and the entire global environment.
The capacity for us to address ozone depletion through the successful implementation of the Montreal Protocol, which limited the production of ozone depleting chemicals, can be seen as a flagship example of our capacity to address global environmental problems through concerted international action. In this respect, one of the panel’s responsibilities in future reports will be to provide quantitative comparisons of how our environment differs today from what it would have looked like without the Montreal Protocol.
Large seasonal changes in sunlight and its spectral composition are challenging for greenhouse growers in commercial horticulture. This is particularly true for growers at high latitudes like Finland.
Better informing growers of the light environment within greenhouses throughout the year and how the of use of lamps with bespoke spectra, and output optimised for specific crop species, allows efficiency saving to be made.
At GreenSys 2019 in Anger, France 16-20 June 2019, Titta Kotilainen will present our research showing how greenhouse lighting subjects plants to different light spectra for photosynthesis depending on the time of year and location of greenhouses.
Titta Kotilainen will discuss how better selection and management of the light environment, through greenhouse materials, shade screens and insect nets, and appropriate lighting, improves crop yield and reduces energy costs.
Robson TM, Kotilainen TK. (2018) Transmittance of spectral irradiance by climate screens and nets used in horticulture and agriculture (Version 1.1.1) [Data set]. Zenodo. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1561317
Kotilainen TK, Robson TM, Hernández R. (2018) Light quality characterization under climate screens and shade nets for controlled-environment agriculture. PLoS ONE 13(6): e0199628. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199628
We recently traveled to Austria to help set-up our collaborators’ experiments monitoring the effects of UV-B radiation exposure on Pinus cembra pollen in the mountains above Innsbruck. If we can understand how exposure to UV radiation affects the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds in pollen today, we may be able to calibrate the concentrations of these compounds found in ice- and sediment cores used in climatic reconstructions. This information potentially will allow palyontologists to understand how UV radiation changed over geological time and what the implications of these changes might have been for the Earth’s ecosystems. By better understanding past climate we will be better prepared to forecast how modern-day changes in UV radiation might affect the Earth’s ecosystems.
Here we take parallel measurements with broadband UV-B sensors and a spectroradiometer next to a specimen pine tree during the period before flowering.
Shade screen and net are used to control the environment of plants growing in polytunnels and greenhouses but they have some unintended consequences in modifying the spectrum of light that plants receive.
Titta Kotilainen has a new article out describing these effects and what they imply for the use and selection of these products. Check it out in PLOS one – HERE!
We recently spent the week at GreenTech Expo in Amsterdam finding out more about innovations in LED lighting and spectral manipulation of the light used in plant production scenarios. In response we are preparing an extended a continuation of our research into spectral quality with an extended dataset of screen and net assessments.