Luther Studies in Finland

This site informs of theological Luther studies done in Finland since the start of the so-called “Mannermaa School” in the 1980s. As Mannermaa’s successor at the chair of ecumenics in Helsinki, I have attempted to follow the fates of his school in this bibliographic manner. My old website material, link below, covers the discussion until 2008. New records cover the period 2008-2017 (plus some recently found older items).

As Finnish Luther studies have meanwhile become mainline research, it may not make sense to treat them as distinct school beyond 2017. While V-M Kärkkäinen and K Stjerna are only briefly mentioned under “discussion” below, the numerous works of these students of Mannermaa could also be listed under “Finnish Authors”.

Overview and Bibliography until 2008 (my old website material)

Risto Saarinen, Partizipation als Gabe: Zwanzig Jahre finnische Lutherforschung (2008)

Risto Saarinen, Finnish Luther Studies: A Story and a Program (2010)

Risto Saarinen, The Study of Luther in Finland (a brief popular overview, 2012)

Bibliography after 2008:

Finnish Authors:

Miikka Anttila (2010), “Music” in Vainio, Engaging, pp. 210-222.

Miikka Anttila (2012), Die Ästhetik Luthers, Kerygma und Dogma 58, 244-255.

Miikka Anttila (2013), Luther’s Theology of Music: Spiritual Beauty and Pleasure. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Kaarlo Arffman (2015) Was war das Luthertum?: Einleitung in eine verschwundene Auslegung des Christentums, Erlangen: LIT.

Kaarlo Arffman (2016), Resistance to the Reformation in 16th-Century Finland, in: Lived Religion and the Long Reformation in Northern Europe c. 1300-1700. Katajala-Peltomaa, S. & Toivo, R. M. (toim.). 1 toim. Leiden & Boston: E. J. Brill, s. 255-273.

Anja Ghiselli (2010), “The Virgin Mary” in Vainio, Engaging, 173-185.

Vesa Hirvonen (2012) Charity and Sin in William Ockham’s Theology, Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie 59, pp. 46-56.

Vesa Hirvonen (2013), Relikvii v teologii Martina Lyutera [The Relics in Martin Luther’s Theology]. Verbum 15, 55-68.

Eero Huovinen (2013) ‘Doctor communis? The Ecumenical Significance of Martin Luther’s Theology’, Lutherjahrbuch 80, 13-30.

Jari Jolkkonen (2010), “Eucharist” in Vainio, Engaging, pp. 108-137.

Jari Jolkkonen (2016), Luther on the Eucharist – Doctrine and Practice, in W Thönissen & J Freitag (eds), Luther: Katholizität und Reform: Wurzeln, Wege, Wirkungen. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig, pp 140-171.

Sammeli Juntunen (2010), “Christ” in Vainio, Engaging, pp. 59-79.

Sammeli Juntunen (2010), “Sex”, in Vainio, Engaging, pp. 186-20.

Ilmari Karimies (2014) Mystik, in: V Leppin & G Schneider-Ludorff (toim), Das Luther-Lexikon. Bückle & Böhm, Regensburg, Sivut 502-506.

Ilmari Karimies (2015), ‘Can Luther’s Doctrine of God as the Giver and God as the Highest Good be Reconciled?: A Critique of Tuomo Mannermaa’s Two Kinds of Love’, Pro Ecclesia, 475-484.

Ilmari Karimies (2017), Martin Luther’s Early Theological Anthropology: From Parts of the Soul to the Human Person. in: J Kaukua & T Ekenberg (toim), Subjectivity and Selfhood in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy, Dordrecht: Springer.

Ilmari Karimies (2017), In Your Light We See the Light: Martin Luther’s Uniderstanding of Faith and Reality between 1513 and 1521. Diss. Helsinki

Ilmari Karimies (2017), Human Being. Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther.

Pekka Kärkkäinen & Lagerlund, H (2009), ‘Philosophical psychology in 1500 : Erfurt, Padua and Bologna’. in: Psychology and philosophy: inquiries into the soul from late scholasticism to contemporary thought. Studies in the history of philosophy of mind, vol. 8, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 27-45.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2009), ‘Psychology and the soul in late medieval Erfurt’ Vivarium, vol 47, no. 4, pp. 421-443.

Pekka Kärkkäinen, (2010), ‘Martin Luther’ in: P. Rosemann et al. (ed.), Mediaeval commentaries on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Volume 2. Brill, Leiden, pp. 471-494.

Pekka Kärkkäinen, (2010), ‘Trinity’. in O-P Vainio (ed.), Engaging Luther: a (New) Theological Assessment. Cascade, Eugene, OR, pp. 80-94.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2011), ‘Bartholomaeus Arnoldi de Usingen’. in H Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy: Philosophy Between 500 and 1500. vol. Volume 1 A-L, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 144-145.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2011), ‘Gabriel Biel’. in H Lagerlund (ed.), Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy: Philosophy Between 500 and 1500. vol. Volume 1 A-L, Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 375-376.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2012), ‘Synderesis in late medieval philosophy and the Wittenberg reformers’ British Journal for the History of Philosophy, vol 20, pp. 881-901.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2013), ‘Philosophical Psychology in Luther’s Theology’, Lutherjahrbuch 80, 268-270.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2014), Johannes Bernhardi on Method. in C Spehr (ed.), Lutherjahrbuch 2014: Organ der internationalen Lutherforschung. vol. 81, Lutherjahrbuch, no. 81, Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, pp. 193-223.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2014), Arnoldi von Usingen, Bartholomäus. in V Leppin & G Schneider-Ludorff (eds), Das Luther-Lexicon. Bückle & Böhm, pp. 78.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2014), Mensch. in V Leppin & G Schneider-Ludorff (eds), Das Luther-Lexicon. Bückle & Böhm, Regensburg, pp. 480-482.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2014), Trutfetter, Jodocus. in V Leppin & G Schneider-Ludorff (eds), Das Luther-Lexicon. Bückle & Böhm, Regensburg, pp. 705-706.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2017), Nominalism and the Via Moderna. in Oxfiord Encyclopedia of Martin Luther.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2017), Emotions and Experience, in Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther.

Pekka Kärkkäinen (2017), Philosophy Among and in the Wake of the Reformers: Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin. in H Lagerlund & B Hill (eds), The Routledge Companion to Sixteenth Century Philosophy., 8, Routledge Philosophy Companions, Routledge, New York and London, pp. 189-202

Jussi Koivisto (2011), “Martin Luther’s Conception of fascinare (Gal. 3:1)” – Biblical Interpretation 19: 471-495.

Jussi Koivisto (2012), “Martin Luther’s Conception of the Serpent Possessed by the Devil” (Gen. 3) and the Antecedent Tradition” in: Wim Francois & August Hollander (eds.), Wading Lambs and Swinmming Elephants: The Bible for the Laity and Theologians in the Medieval and Early Modern Era. Leuven: Peeters.

Kari Kopperi (2010), “Theology of the Cross” in Vainio, Engaging, 155-172.

Tuija Laine (ed. 2012), Luther, reformaatio ja kirja/ Luther, the Reformation and the Book. Helsinki: STKS.

Tuomo Mannermaa (2010), Two Kinds of Love: Martin Luther’s Religious World. Minneapolis: Fortress.

Tuomo Mannermaa (2010) “Luther as a Reader of the Holy Scripture”, in Vainio, Engaging, pp. 223-232.

Eeva Martikainen (2010), “Baptism” in Vainio, Engaging, pp. 95-107.

Antti Raunio (2008) ‘Natural law and Christian love in Luther’s theology’. in Lidenskab og stringens: festskrift til Svend Andersen i anledning af 60 års fødselsdagen den 8. marts 2008. Anis, Frederiksberg, pp. 249-262.

Antti Raunio (2009) ‘Luther’s theology for today’. in Christine Helmer (ed.), The global Luther: a theologian for modern times. Fortress Press, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 210-227.

Antti Raunio (2010) ‘Faith and Christian Living in Luther’s Confession Concerning Christ’s Supper (1528)’ Lutherjahrbuch : Organ der internationalen Lutherforschung, vol 76 (2009), pp. 19-56.

Antti Raunio (2010) ‘The Human Being’. in Engaging Luther: a (New) Theological Assessment. Cascade, pp. 27-58.

Antti Raunio (2014), ‘Ethik’, Das Luther-Lexikon, 204-211.

Antti Raunio, (2014) ‘Nächstenliebe’, Das Luther-Lexikon, 507-508.

Antti Raunio (2016), Luther in Finnish, Lutheran Quarterly.

Antti Raunio (2017), Martin Luther and Cajetan: divinity. –  International Journal of Philosophy and Theology, 55–74.

Antti Raunio (2017) Love, Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther.

Antti Raunio (2017), Luther in Finland and the Baltics, Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther.

Miikka Ruokanen (2013), ‘Luther Reception in Asia and Africa’, Lutherjahrbuch 80, 278-282.

Risto Saarinen (2009), ‘Luther the urban legend‘. in EBCH (ed.), The global Luther: a theologian for modern times. Fortress Press, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 13-31.

Risto Saarinen (2010), ‘Finnish Luther Studies: A Story and a Program‘. in O-P Vainio (ed.), Engaging Luther: A (New) Theological Assessment. Cascade, Eugene, OR, pp. 1-27.

Risto Saarinen (2011), Weakness of Will in Renaissance and Reformation Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Risto Saarinen (2012), ‘Luther and Beneficia‘. in The Reformation as Christianization. Studies in the Late Middle Ages, Humanism and the Reformation, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, pp. 169-188.

Risto Saarinen (2012), ‘The study of Luther in Finland‘. in T Laine (ed.), Luther, reformaatio ja kirja. Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, Helsinki, pp. 133-151.

Risto Saarinen (2013), ‘Luther und humanistische Philosophie’, Lutherjahrbuch 80, pp. 77-109.

Risto Saarinen (2014), ‘Justification by Faith: The View of the Mannermaa School’, in: The Oxford Handbook of Martin Luther’s Theology, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 254-263.

Risto Saarinen (2014), ‘Glaube’, Das Luther-Lexikon, 259-261.

Risto Saarinen (2014), ‘Lutherdeutung/Lutherforschung’, Das Luther-Lexikon, 415-419.

Risto Saarinen (2014), ‘Theosis’, Das Luther-Lexikon, 683-684.

Risto Saarinen (2015), Weakness of Will: Reformation Anthropology between Aristotle and the Stoa. in A Eusterschulte & H Wälzholz (eds), Anthropological Reformations – Anthropology in the Era of Reformation. Refo500 academic studies, vol. 28, Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen, pp. 17-33.

Risto Saarinen (2016), Das glaubende Subjekt und die Ökumene: Wege der finnischen Lutherforschung. in W Thönissen & J Freitag (eds), Luther: Katholizität und Reform: Wurzeln, Wege, Wirkungen. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig, pp. 261-278.

Risto Saarinen (2016), Forensic Justification and Mysticism in Early Modern Lutheranism. in UL Lehner, RA Muller & AG Roeber (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern Theology 1600-1800. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 311-325.

Risto Saarinen (2016), Die Eigenart der Scholastik in Gerhard Ebelings Lutherdeutung. in G Frank & V Leppin (eds), Die Reformation und ihr Mittelalter. vol. 2016, Melanchthon-Schriften der Stadt Bretten (MSB) , vol. 14, Frommann-Holzboog, Stuttgart, pp. 441-452.

Risto Saarinen (2017), Luther and the Reading of Scripture. in D Marmion (ed.), Remembering the Reformation: Martin Luther and Catholic Theology. Fortress Press, pp. 193-209.

Risto Saarinen (2017), Relational Thinking. in P Hinlicky (ed.), Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther. Oxford University Press, pp. 3,250-263.

Risto Saarinen & Nelson, D (2017), Law. in P Hinlicky (ed.), Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 2,81-92.

Risto Saarinen, Nelson, D, Hinlicky, P, Zachhuber, J, Vind, A, Mattox, M & Malcolm, L (eds) 2017, Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther. Oxford University Press.

Risto Saarinen (2017), Lutherforschung in Skandinavien. in A Beutel (ed.), Luther Handbuch, 3. Aufl.. Mohr Siebeck, pp. 42-48.

Risto Saarinen (2017), Luther and the Gift. SMHR 100. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2017.

Olli-Pekka Vainio (ed. 2010), Engaging Luther: A (New) Theological Assessment. Eugene: Cascade.

Olli-Pekka Vainio (2010), Faith. in: Engaging Luther: A (New) Theological Assessment. Eugene: Cascade, pp. 138-154.

Olli-Pekka Vainio (2015) ‘Martin Luther on Perception and Theological Knowledge’ Neue Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie und Religionsphilosophie 57, 87-109.

Olii-Pekka Vainio (2015),’Luther and Theosis: A Response to the Critics of Finnish Luther Research’ Pro Ecclesia : a journal of Catholic and Evangelical theology, 459-474.

Olli-Pekka Vainio (2016) ‘Justification’ Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther.

Olli-Pekka Vainio (2016)  Lutero e la theosis: malintesi e fraintendimenti. in D Kampen (ed.), Lutero e la Theosis. Collana M. Lutero – Opere Scelte. Volumi Supplementari, Claudiana, Torino.

 Discussion: (also additional titles from before 2008)

Appelqvist, Tomas (2010) Finns det en forestallning om gudomliggorelse hos Martin Luther? “Den nya finska tolkningen av Luther” och en kritisk diskussion av dess betydelse i nutida teologi, in : Svensk teologisk kvartalskrift 86, 59-69.

Billings, J. Todd (2013) The Contemporary Reception of Luther’s and Calvin’s Doctrine of Union with Christ, in: R. Ward Holder (ed.), Calvin and Luther: The Continuing Relationship, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Roprecht, 165-182.

Chester, Stephen J. (2017) Reading Paul with the Reformers: Reconciling Old and New Perspectives, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Chia, Roland (2011 ),Salvation as justification and deification, Scottish Journal of Theology 64, p 125-139.

DeWitte, Pieter (2008), Being in the Presence of Christ. The Finnish Luther Interpretation and the Justification Debate, Studia oecumenica 8, 151-172.

 DeVries, Dawn (2007), Justification, in: Oxford Handbook of Systematic Theology, Oxford: OUP, p. 197-211.

Drury, John (2005), Luther and Wesley on union and impartation in light of recent Finnish Luther research. Wesleyan Theological Journal 40, p 58-68.

Fesko, J. V. (2012), Beyond Calvin: Union with Christ and Justification in Early Modern Reformed Theology (1517-1700). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Frederics, James (2011), The Finnish Luther: Reflections from a Buddhist Perspective. Dialog: A Journal of Theology Vol. 50 Issue 3, p231-241.
Garcia, Javier (2013), A Critique of Mannermaa on Luther and Galatians. Lutheran Quarterly 27, p33-55.

Hailer, Martin (2010), Rechtfertigung als Vergottung? Eine Auseinandersetzung mit der finnischen Luther-Deutung und ihrer systematisch-theologischen Adaption. Lutherjahrbuch 77, p 239-267.

Hailer, Martin (2011), Gottes Gnade als Teilgewahrung an ihm: Uberlegungen zur finnischen Luther-Interpretation, Evangelische Theologie 71. p 35-49.

Hallesby Norheim, Bård Eirik (2014), Practising Baptism: Christian Practices and the Presence of Christ. Eugene: Pickwick.

Holm, Bo Kristian (2013), Beyond Juxtapositing Luther and the ‘New Perspective on Paul’: A Common Quest for the ‘Other’ Way of Giving?, Lutherjahrbuch 80, 159-183.

Isaac, Gordon (2012) the Finnish school of Luther interpretation: responses and trajectories, Concordia Theological Quarterly 76, p 251-268.

Johannesson, Karin (2014) Helgelsens filosofi: om andlig träning i luthersk tradition. Stockholm: Verbum.

Johannesson, Karin (2014), Lutheran Spiritual Theology in a post-Christian Society, in: Justification in a Post-Christian Society ed. Grenholm & Gunner, Eugene: Pickwick, 12-136.

Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti (2016), Spirit and Salvation. A Constructive Christian Theology for the Pluralistic World, vol. 4. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.

Laato, Timo (2008) Justification: the stumbling block of the Finnish Luther school. Concordia Theological Quarterly 72, p 327-346.

Litwa, M. David (2013), Becoming Divine. An Introduction to Deification in Western Culture. Eugene: Cascade.

Lytvynenko, Viacheslav (2013) Theosis in Luther: Analysis of the New Finnish Luther Research, in: Theological Reflections: Euro-Asian Journal of Theology, 108-127.

Olson, Roger (2007), Deification in contemporary theology. Theology Today 64, p 186-200.

Oxford Encyclopedia of Martin Luther (2017), ed. D. Nelson & P. Hinlicky, discusses Finnish Luther reseach (in addition to the articles by the Finns named above) e.g. in “Ecumenical Movement” (Sarah Hinlicky Wilson), “Gift” (Bo Holm), “Ontology” (Dennis Bielfeldt) and “Orthodox Christians and Evangelical Lutheran Tradition (A. G. Roeber).

Peters, Ted (2015), Sin Boldly! Justifying Faith for Fragile and Broken Souls. Minneapolis: Fortress.

Reid, Duncan (2003), Luther’s Finnlandisierung: a recent debate about salvation in Reformation thought. In: Sin and salvation Hindmarsh, Australia : Australian Theological Forum, p 185-204.

McInroy, Mark (2012), Rechtfertigung als Theosis,in: Catholica, Issue 2, p1-18

Schumacher, William  (2010)  Who do I say that you are? Anthropology and the theology of theosis in the Finnish school of Tuomo Mannermaa. Eugene: Wipf & Stock.

Skottene, Ragnar (2008) Grace and Gift: An Analysis of a Central Motif in Martin Luther’s Rationis Latominiae Confutatio, Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Stjerna, Kirsi (2017), Finnish School of Luther Research, in: Dictionary of Luther and the Lutheran Traditions, Ed. Timothy J. Wengert et al.. Baker

van Vlastuin, Willem (2014), Be Renewed. A Theology of Persona Renewal. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Webber, David (2012 ) The “mystical union with Christ”: the new Finnish school compared with early twentieth-century American theology. Logia 21, p 13-20.


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