Author Archives: Suzie Thomas

About Suzie Thomas

University Lecturer in Museology. Interested in community engagement, alternative and outsider approaches to the past, museum security, and dark heritage.

More talks this week, in Scotland and Canada!

On 9th November, Oula Seitsonen is talking at the Calgary Finlandia Cultural Association on the topic:

Digging Lapland’s Dark Heritage:  Archaeologies and Heritage of the Second World War German MILITARY PRESENCE IN FINNISH LAPLAND

Over the last decade archaeologists and other cultural heritage professionals have started paying attention to the material legacy of Nazi German presence in Finnish Lapland during the Second World War (WWII), as Finland’s co-belligerent in the fight against the Soviet Union. At the peak of their military built-up there were over 200 000 German troops and about 30 000 of multinational Prisoners-of-War and forced labourers in this thinly inhabited northern periphery of Europe. The Finno-German “comradeship-in-arms” came to an end after Finno-Soviet cease-fire in 1944, under increasing Soviet pressure, and caused the outbreak of Lapland War between Finns and Germans 1944–1945). This ended up with the retreating German troops resorting in the scorched earth tactics, and with the so-called “Burning of Lapland”. Owing to this complex history, Finno-German relations in WWII have been a sensitive, silenced and little-discussed issue throughout the post-war decades. However, there are ruins of thousands of over-grown German military sites in northern Finland, especially in Lapland’s vast wilderness areas. The question of the cultural heritage status and value of this material legacy has been raised only recently, and is still an open and ongoing debate. However, during the archaeological and ethnographic inquiries it has been highlighted how important these material traces are for the local inhabitants, as an integral part of their ancestral, embodied every-day lifeworlds. Many locals express a strong sense of ownership and custodianship towards the material remains on their “own lands”. The traces of war have become to act as important agents of the transgenerational communal memories of war, destruction, and a host of other issues beyond those, closely intertwined with contemporary questions, such as land ownership and land-use rights. These also mirror Lapland’s long colonial history and, real and perceived, marginalization by the southern authorities, and the enduring north-south confrontations.

On 10th November Oula is talking in the Chacmool conference at the University of Calgary, on the theme of “Archaeology, National Identity and Globalization”.

On Friday 10th November, Suzie Thomas is participating in the Scotland’s Community Heritage Conference, hosted at Strathclyde University, Glasgow. She will talk about “Public & community archaeologies of German PoW camps in Finnish Lapland”. The event is an annual celebration of community-based archaeology and heritage, and this year features many examples also from around the world.

Suzie Thomas talking at Esille event in Ateneum soon

Esille – the museum and exhibition research forum – is organizing a one day event on 9th November in Ateneum Art Museum in Helsinki.

Among the speakers, Suzie Thomas will give a presentation on the research of Lapland’s Dark Heritage.

The programme is as follows (rest of the content is in Finnish):

10.15–10.30 Tervetuliaissanat, Susanna Pettersson

10.30–11.15 Suzie Thomas: Lapland’s Dark Heritage

11.15–12.15 Sessio 1 (pj. Taina Syrjämaa)

  • Satu Savia: Tuntematon Tyyne – digitaalinen rekonstruktio
  • Riku Manni: Eriarvoisuuden estradilla. Vuosien 1851 ja 1862 brittiläiset maailmannäyttelyt ja eriarvoisuuden esittäminen

12.15–13.15 Lounas (omakustanteinen)

13.15–14.45 Sessio 2 (pj. Leila Koivunen)

  • Taina Syrjämaa: Näkymättömyyttä ja näkyvyyttä – eläimet 1800-luvun näyttelymediassa
  • Pia Koivunen: Kenellä on oikeus puhua Leninistä ja miten? Tampereen Lenin-museo Moskovan näkökulmasta
  • Anne-Maija Malmisalo-Lensu: Kävijöiden motiivien, odotusten ja kokemusten tutkiminen – Haastattelututkimus metodina Alvar Aallon talomuseoissa

14.45–15.00 Tauko

15.00–15.45 Anne-Maria Pennonen (Veljekset von Wright -näyttelyn pääkuraattori): Suurnäyttelyä tekemässä: tutkimuskysymyksistä näyttelyksi

15.45 Lopetus

Digging Cultybraggan and searching for escape tunnels

Next week from Monday 19th June LDH researcher Suzie Thomas and our project colleague Iain Banks will be busy looking at Second World War internment heritage in Scotland.

Historic Environment Scotland has provided sponsorship for an excavation at Cultybraggan Prisoner of War (PoW) Camp, outside Comrie in Perthshire.  The camp was originally built for holding Italian PoWs, but later in the Second World War, was used for German PoWs.  Cultybraggan was part of a network of PoW camps across Britain, but was important as one of only two ‘Black’ camps in Scotland along with Watten in Caithness: both High Security camps where prisoners considered to be the most dangerous PoWs were held.

Location of Cultybraggan camp in Scotland.

We know that there were escape attempts from the compound, and that inmates had attempted to tunnel their way out of the camp.  None of the attempts were successful. The purpose of the excavation is to locate traces of tunnels in the camp’s Compound B, so that they can be compared to the tunnels of Stalag Luft III, which the University of Glasgow Centre for Battlefield Archaeology and GUARD excavated in 2011.

After the war, the camp was used for a variety of purposes, including as a training camp for the Army, the Territorial Army, and finally for a range of youth groups.  It has survived very well because of the subsequent uses, but it does mean that there have been many alterations to the camp.

Iain and Suzie will work alongside a team of MLitt Conflict Archaeology & Heritage students from University of Glasgow, as well as with volunteers from the local community; there will also be a contract archaeologist from GUARD Archaeology Ltd on site. A core goal of the fieldwork is to involve members of the community to promote the site on behalf of Comrie Development Trust, and to give local residents in the Comrie area the opportunity to participate in archaeological fieldwork.

View of Cultybraggan PoW camp, image courtesy of Iain Banks.

Suzie is also interested to talk to local people about the meanings and values they associate with the site, as part of her research at the University of Glasgow through a Royal Society of Edinburgh / Caledonian Research Fund European Visiting Fellowship. Please contact her if you are interested in speaking with her! suzie.e.thomas @ helsinki.fi

On the evening of Saturday 24th June, Iain will be giving a lecture in Comrie about PoW camps and the work that we have done at Cultybraggan. Everybody is welcome!

Lapland’s Dark Heritage fieldwork preparations

Vesa-Pekka Herva, Oula Seitsonen and Suzie Thomas are in the Inari area for a few days to make some plans for the eagerly anticipated #InariDig2 coming up in August. We have had a short visit to Utsjoki, checked in with our colleagues at Siida museum, and are making contact with local community members close to the sites we are considering investigating in the summer.

19th -century church in the village of Utsjoki, in Utsjoki municipality; the northernmost municipality in both Finland and the EU. Photo: Suzie Thomas

Along with us is Dr Tehmina Goskar, a museum professional and researcher from Cornwall, UK, who is carrying out research under the Change Makers programme funded by Arts Council England.

You can follow our work and adventures via our Twitter feed @DarkLapland and also follow Tehmina at @tehm.

Suzie Thomas talking about Lapland’s Dark Heritage in London

On Thursday 9th March, Suzie Thomas will give a lecture entitled “Lapland’s Dark Heritage: Understanding the Material Legacy of the Second World War in Northern Finland” at the Society of Antiquaries of London.

Her lecture has the description:

“In this lecture I will talk about current research at the Universities of Helsinki and Oulu, with which I am involved as a Researcher. In the project “Lapland’s Dark Heritage”, we are investigating the ways in which local residents and visitors to Finnish Lapland engage with and understand the material culture left behind by both the German military presence in Finland, and the so-called “Lapland War” (1944-45). This research has revealed varied, and sometimes surprising, interactions with the material heritage of this period – which itself ranges from collectible military memorabilia through to the traces of former structures, including PoW camps and military depots, in the Lapland wilderness. In this talk, I will give a historical overview of Finland’s experiences in the Second World War, and share some diverse case studies from the research. This includes a potentially controversial exhibition in a Lapland museum (and visitor reactions to it), individual history hobbyists and artefact collectors – often with very personal stories and reasons for engaging with the wartime material – through to “alternative” expressions of touristic activities and attractions.”

The lecture is open to Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries of London and their guests, and will also be recorded to be available to watch via the website.

By Tony Hisgett from Birmingham, UK – Burlington House Gates 2Uploaded by tm, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27908270

UPDATE: The film of the lecture is now available to view online.

New publication / Uusi julkaisu: “Ghosts in the background” and “The price of the war”. Representations of the Lapland War in Finnish museums

Project Researchers Suzie Thomas and Eerika Koskinen-Koivisto recently had a paper published in the journal Nordisk Museologi. The article, entitled “Ghosts in the background” and “The price of the war”. Representations of the Lapland War in Finnish museums, stems from an assessment of the different ways in which selected museums across Finland address the theme of the Lapland War (1944-45). The paper’s abstract reads as follows:

Museums decide which events and perspectives to privilege over others in their exhibitions. In the context of “difficult” or “dark” histories – in which the subject matter might be painful, controversial or in some other way challenging for one or more community or interest groups to reconcile with – some events may be marginalized or ignored. This may also happen due to official narratives diverting attention to other events that have come to be seen as more “important” or worthy of discussion. We explore the ways that information about the Lapland War (1944-1945) is incorporated into permanent exhibitions at five Finnish museums: the Provincial Museum of  Lapland; Siida – the National Museum of the Finnish Sámi; the Gold Prospector Museum; the Military Museum of Finland, and the Finnish Airforce Museum. Despite the significant social and environmental upheavals brought about by the brief but destructive conflict, it seems surprisingly rarely addressed.

The journal issue’s contents list is available online, and the articles will also appear online later in they year. The print version is already available.

Reference:

Thomas, S., and Koskinen-Koivisto, E. (2016) ‘Ghosts in the background’ and ‘The Price of War’: Representations of the Lapland War in Finnish museums, Nordisk Museologi 2016(2): 60-77.

Photo: Information about crashed aircrafts at the Finnish Airforce Museum. Eerika Koskinen-Koivisto.

Projektin tutkijat Suzie Thomas ja Eerika Koskinen-Koivisto julkaisivat hiljattain artikkelin Nordisk Museologi -aikakauslehdessä. Artikkeli käsittelee Lapin sodan representaatioita viiden eri museon perusnäyttelyissä. Tässä artikkelin abstrakti suomeksi käännettynä:

Museot päättävät jokaisen näyttelyn kohdalla, mitä tapahtumia ja näkökulmia ne haluavat painottaa. Vaikean tai synkän kulttuuriperinnön kohdalla valinnat saattavat johtaa jollekin taholle ristiriitaisten tai  kipeiden aiheiden sivuuttamiseen ja marginalisointiin. Näin voi esimerkiksi käydä, jos aihetta katsotaan virallisen koko Suomen käsittävän sotakertomuksen näkökulmasta tai nostetaan esiin jokin tapahtuma tärkeimpänä tai keskeisimpänä Suomen kohtaloa sodassa määrittävänä tekijänä. Artikkelissa analysoimme viiden suomalaisen museon – Lapin maakuntamuseon, Saamelaismuseo Siidan, Kultamuseon, Sotamuseon ja Suomen ilmavoimamuseon – perusnäyttelyitä. Huolimatta sen merkittävistä vaikutuksista alueen asukkaisiin ja luontoon, Lapin sota (1944-1945) saa yllättävän vähän sijaa museoiden pysyvissä näyttelyissä. 

Nordisk Museologi -lehden numero 2/2016 ilmestyi tammikuussa. Sen sisällysluettelo on jo verkossa ja kaikkien artikkeleiden PDF-versiot ilmestyvät samalle sivulle piakkoin.

Happy New Year / Hyvää uutta vuotta, from us to you!

We in the Lapland’s Dark Heritage team are looking forward to more research, more cooperation with our colleagues and friends in Finland and beyond, and more dissemination of our results in 2017. We also have some new adventures to look forward to:

As noted already, #InariDig2 received a grant from the University of Helsinki’s Future Fund, meaning we can return to Lapland next summer for more public archaeology.

Eerika Koskinen-Koivisto recently received a personal grant from the Finnish Cultural Foundation (Suomen Kulttuurirahasto), meaning that she can continue to do research related to the project, and will be based at the University of Jyväskylä, working with the rest of the Lapland’s Dark Heritage collective until October 2017.

We also had some wonderful news from Royal Society of Edinburgh. Both Suzie Thomas and our colleague Iain Banks of the University of Glasgow received Caledonian Research Fund/Royal Society of Edinburgh (CRF/RSE) European Visiting Research Fellowships for 2017. This means that Suzie will visit Scotland for two months to carry out research around community uses of the Cultybraggan former Prisoner of War Camp, basing herself at the University of Glasgow for that time. Shortly after her Fellowship ends, Iain will come to Finland for a further two months, so that he can once again participate in the excavations in Inari, carry out further field research and spend time at the Universities of Helsinki and Oulu.

We wish everyone all the very best for 2017, and look forward to updating you with more project news over the next year!

By Kolbkorr (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

By Kolbkorr (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

Talks this week in Helsinki from Lapland’s Dark Heritage

On Wednesday 14th December, Suzie Thomas is giving a talk as part of the University of the Arts’ KuvA Research Days / KuvAn Tutkimuspäivät at the Exhibition Laboratory, Merimiehenkatu 36, Helsinki.  She talks as part of the afternoon “Poetic Archeology” session, with a paper entitled “Archeologies of Conflict and Dark Heritages: Unpicking a painful past”. The full programme is available here as a pdf. All are welcome to this public event.

On Thursday 15th December, both Vesa-Pekka Herva and Oula Seitsonen are talking in different events. Herva gives a presentation in the afternoon at titled “Saksalaisen sotilassairaalan yhteisöarkeologiset tutkimukset Inarissa” (En: Community archaeological studies of a German military hospital in Inari), as part of the University of Helsinki’s archaeologykesalla-kentalla” fieldwork seminar day on Thursday at Porthania, Yliopistokatu 3, Helsinki (room PIII). The event is open to all.

Later the same day at 18:00-20:00, Oula Seitsonen gives a presentation at the public event “Arkeologia tutuksi” (En: Get to know archaeology) organised by the Archaeological Society of Finland, together with Timo Ylimaunu from the University of Oulu. Ylimaunu  is presenting “Modernin maailman arkeologia ja muistaminen” (En: Archaeology of modern world and remembering) and Seitsonen presents “#InariDig: Yleisö- ja yhteisöarkeologia modernin maailman monimerkityksisen kulttuuriperinnön käsittelyssä” (En: #InariDig: Public and community archaeology in dealing with the multifaceted heritage of the modern world), at Kirjasto 10, Elielinaukio 2G, Helsinki. Follow the link for the event flyer: modernin-maailman-arkeologiaa.

New publication from Koskinen-Koivisto and Thomas / Uusi julkaisu

Project researchers Eerika Koskinen-Koivisto and Suzie Thomas contributed a chapter to the new edited volume “Heritage in Action: Making the Past in the Present”, which was recently published by Springer, edited by Helaine Silverman, Emma Waterton and Steve Watson.

The book chapter, entitled “Lapland’s Dark Heritage: Responses to the Legacy of the World War II”, contributes to the wide and diverse volume which looks at different ways in which the idea of heritage is an active (and activist) phenomenon which is constantly on the move and changing.

The abstract for the chapter is:

“Dark” or “difficult” heritage is increasingly becoming of interest to researchers. How do different communities, whether in situ, online, or united by a particular hobby or interest, relate to aspects about the past that may be difficult or painful to reconcile? Do these encounters with difficult heritage lead to exploitation, indifference, destruction, or other even more diverse responses? This chapter focuses on communities in far northern Finland where different groups, both locally and more remotely, for example via online encounters, have chosen to engage (or not to engage) with the physical remains left by German activity in Lapland during World War II. These groups, including tourists, local residents, and hobbyist treasure hunters, respond differently to this “dark” heritage generated and in so doing generate their own connections and reconnections with the past.”

The book is dedicated to the memory of a much loved and respected colleague Professor Steve Watson, who sadly and unexpectedly passed away during the production of the volume.

suzie_book20161208_153917

Suzie’s and Eerika’s bookselfies.

Projektitutkijat Eerika Koskinen-Koiviston ja Suzie Thomasin kirjoittama artikkeli julkaistiin teoksessa “Heritage in Action: Making the Past in the Present”, jonka Springer juuri julkaisi. Teoksen toimittavat Helaine Silverman, Emma Waterton and Steve Watson.

Artikkelin nimi on “Lapland’s Dark Heritage: Responses to the Legacy of the World War II” ja se käsittelee sotahistoriaharrastajia sekä muuta aktiivista toimintaa sodan kulttuuriperinnön parissa Suomen Lapissa.  Laajassa  artikkelikokoelmassa kulttuuriperintöä  tarkastellaan dynaamisena ja muuntuvana ilmiönä, jonka kentällä toimii erilaisia aktivisteja ja instituutiota. Yllä artikkelin englanninkielinen abstrakti.

Teos on omistettu pidetyn ja kunnioitetun kollegamme professori Steve Watsonin muistolle. Kaikkien suruksi hän kuoli yllättäen kesken kirjaprojektin.

 

Researcher Suzie Thomas participating in a Difficult Memories workshop on 4th November

Project Researcher Dr Suzie Thomas is giving a presentation at the upcoming workshop “Difficult Memories – Key Terms” hosted by the University of Helsinki on Friday 4th November, 2016. The event is part of the international ERA-NET research scheme “LivingMemories”, which connects researchers across six different countries.

Interior of the University of Helsinki's Main Building. Image by Näystin under CC BY-SA 2.0.

f Interior of the University of Helsinki’s Main Building. Image by Näystin, available under CC BY-SA 2.0.

Suzie will give a presentation titled ‘Difficult Memories in Finland’s far north: “Dark Heritage” and the legacy of the Lapland War’. The abstract is as follows: Official national narratives and personal recollections of times of conflict are frequently at odds. Uncomfortable truths can become silenced, whilst more seemingly “glorious” events become celebrated. Like most of Europe, Finland was drawn into the Second World War, for various reasons becoming a co-belligerent with Nazi Germany for much of the conflict. Until late 1944, some 200,000 German soldiers were stationed in Finland, many in Finnish Lapland. Reports suggest that interactions between locals and Germans were largely amicable. It was not until the 1944-45 so-called Lapland War (resulting from a treaty agreement between Finland and the Soviet Union to expel the Germans), that town and infrastructure destruction occurred due to the German army’s scorched earth tactics as they retreated into Norway. The combination of this violent end to Finnish-German cooperation, and subsequent embarrassment at having sided with the Nazis, have arguably led to the downplaying of the significance of the Lapland War in the national interpretation of Finland in the Second World War. At the same time locally, there is continued interest in this period; expressed through local hobbyist activity and even museum exhibitions. In this paper I briefly introduce the historical background to our case study, and then introduce some of the ways in which this difficult heritage has been silenced or highlighted – depending on the circumstances. I debate whether it is correct to suggest that this period and place has a “dark heritage” at all, and consider the impact of our own research activities on the local communities.

Suzie with a Snow Dog in the North East of England.

Suzie with a Snow Dog in the North East of England.

Followers on Twitter should look out for the project hashtag #LivingMemo, and for the seminar itself also look for @helsinkiuni, #research and #keyterms.