During the year 2019, fieldwork and data collection were the main activities of the project. The project team met during three periods of fieldwork in Ecuador. In January, Paola Minoia and Andrés Tapia interviewed and discussed with key actors, including professionals and experts in education, ancestral knowledges, decoloniality and interculturality, as well as with Indigenous leaders and representatives of NGOs, in Quito and Pastaza. In March-June and September-October, Tuija Veintie, Johanna Hohenthal, Andrés Tapia, Katy Machoa, Tito Madrid and students of the UEA visited the IBE upper secondary schools in Pastaza and interviewed directors, teachers, students and parents. Three schools were selected for more comprehensive field study: UEIB “Camilo Huatatoca” in Santa Clara, UEIB “Sarayaku” and UEIB “Kumay”. In these schools, we conducted a higher number of in-depth interviews with teachers and students, questionnaire surveys, classroom observation, as well as participatory mapping and photography with the students.
We cordially invite contributions to our panel at EADI ISS Conference 2020: Solidarity, Peace and Social Justice held in the Hague, Netherlands, 29 June – 2 July 2020.
The comprehensive development project manifested in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) proposes through the SDG4 an overall engagement on “quality education for all”. It endeavors to support social justice by promoting equal access to education for the most deprived groups. However, the SDG4 does not acknowledge the existing epistemic diversity around the world and the need to support alternative ways to learn and produce knowledge. Neither does it contain any reference to the UN declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples of 2007. Thus, Indigenous perspectives, knowledges and alternative forms of education remain marginalized. To promote global social and epistemic justice, education should include equal representation of diverse epistemologies, knowledges and educational practices. Without comprehensive understanding of epistemic pluralism, interculturality and hegemonies of power within the society, well-meaning educational programs may end up reproducing models of neoliberal multiculturalism and ideas of primitive otherness, and fail to promote equal relations among existing cultures. Instead, a radical project on intercultural education should reflect the principles of relationality between lands, beings and knowledges (Walsh 2018) linked to the distinctive territorial and ecological realities and sustaining transformation projects to reverse structural injustices.
This session is organised by members of EADI Working Group on “Post- and Decolonial Perspectives on Development and welcomes papers that discuss pluriversal educational alternatives in diverse contexts. We particularly welcome contributions from young scholars and participants from the Global South and/or with Indigenous background. Abstracts of 500-600 words including key literature, theoretical and methodological approaches and keywords should be submitted by 15 December. Authors of accepted abstracts should send draft papers by March 2020. Full papers are circulated within the presenters and organizers before the conference. After the conference, the organizers invite the authors to submit their revised manuscript for possible publication in an upcoming special issue in an international journal.
Looking forward to receiving your abstracts! Please follow the instructions here.
Organizers: Paola Minoia, Johanna Hohenthal and Tuija Veintie, Development Studies, University of Helsinki
We express our solidarity to all people of Ecuador that are currently suffering for the heavy situation initiated with the package of IMF policies rolled out by Lenin Moreno’s administration. Too many social groups from the low and medium classes will suffer from these policies with further poverty increase, and we understand why they cannot accept them. Unfortunately, the government has not shown any willingness to retract the package and undemocratically, has refused the dialogue with the parties. Instead, the government has responded with the state of exception, after which, the protesters have been met with violent repression and curfew measures. Military forces have entered “peace zones”, targeting especially indigenous protestors. The people of Quito has responded with a night-time cacerolazo (banging pots and pans on the street) as a form of peaceful resistance. The fact that some infiltrated groups have entered in the demonstration to deny its legitimation, cannot be an excuse to devalue this general strike. People ask for social justice. They need more services, no further deprivation and violence!
We want to show they are not alone. Let’s join their calls for support! Continue reading “In solidarity with the Ecuadorian people”
Text: Tuija Veintie
On Tuesday, 8 October, all schools in Ecuador suspend their classes to guarantee the safety of their students, announced the Ministry of Education of Ecuador. In Pastaza province the classroom doors in schools and at the Amazon State University (UEA) have stayed closed for several days, from Thursday 3 October. Going to classes would be difficult, and possibly dangerous, because transportation in Puyo and around the province is paralysed by roadblocks and demonstrations. The demonstrations started last week after President Lenin Moreno had announced the paquetazo, a package of economic measures to reduce the fiscal deficit of the country.
The paquetazo includes tax and labor reform as well as elimination of fuel subsidies. As an immediate effect of these reforms, the fuel price rose with 100% overnight. Ecuadorian transport unions declared a national strike starting on Thursday, 3 October. The strike ended all bus, truck and taxi transportation in the country. Moreover, the bus, truck and taxi drivers blocked the roads in the main cities of the country stopping all motor traffic. The transport unions ended their strike on Friday 4 October in the evening, but civil society organisations, including the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE), Confederation of the Ecuadorian Amazonian Indigenous Nationalities (CONFENIAE), and the United Workers Front (FUT) continue demonstrations against paquetazo.
Text and photographs: Tuija Veintie
”Piatúa is a secret river. It has power that no other river has. If I am feeling bad, tired or stressed, I go to the Piatúa river and in the river I start feeling good again. The river cures me” says an upper secondary school student in Santa Clara, Ecuador. Our research group is currently conducting research activities in this region and our interviews with and photographs taken by upper secondary school students show the special role that river Piatúa carries for the students as a sacred river and an important place for recreation and social gatherings. For the students, their families and the small-scale farming the river is a necessary source of water. In addition, the river Piatúa brings income to the local people through tourism as the clean water and landscapes attract tourists interested in nature, recreation and water sports.
Clouds have been gathering over future of the crystal-clear waters of river Piatúa. The Piatúa hydroelectric power plant project, run by Genefran S.A., is located in Santa Clara, between the provinces of Napo and Pastaza. Local Kichwa organisation, PONAKICS (Pueblo originario Kichwa de Santa Clara), claims that the power plant project threatens the environment, livelihoods and culture of the Indigenous communities in the Santa Clara area. Furthermore, the power plant project violated the rights of the Santa Clara Kichwa people as the construction work initiated without prior consultation.
Redacción: Katy Machoa
Dialogo sobre los retos de la educación con el Ex Ministro de Educación
Entrevista con Milton Luna Ex Ministro de Educación quién durante sus 6 meses de gestión se comprometió en la reapertura de las escuelas comunitarias, dicha reapertura corresponde a una demanda realizada en las diferentes movilizaciones realizadas por los pueblos y nacionalidades del Ecuador. Con su salida del ministerio el pasado 26 de junio ¿Cuál es la perspectiva de la EIB en el Ecuador?.
Acceso a la educación superior desde las comunidades
El acceso a la educación superior para la juventud de los pueblos y nacionalidades del Ecuador tiene particularidades que no han sido consideradas por la implementación de la prueba ser bachiller, misma que es obligatoria para todo estudiante de tercer año de bachillerato. La particularidades como el acceso a internet, una computadora, transporte y los esfuerzos personales, familiares y comunitarios que se realizan desde el territorio de las comunidades son compartidas por Elias Kuja Rector de la Unidad Educativa Bilingue “Kumay”.
En abril de 2019 organizamos panel coordinado en el XVII Encuentro de Geografía de América Latina (EGAL 2019) que tuvo lugar en Quito, Ecuador. Les hacemos llegar abajo dos de las ponencias presentadas en este panel sobre ‘Pluralismo ecocultural y educación intercultural en territorios amazónicos’.
Contribución de la categoría territorio al Sistema de Educación Bilingüe de la Nacionalidad Kichwa de Pastaza.
Andrés Tapia (Universidad Estatal Amazónica / Confeniae)
En la década de los 90s emerge el Movimiento Indígena del Ecuador como un actor protagónico de la vida política nacional a partir del Primer Levantamiento de 1990 que sitúa a la Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador CONAIE en el mapa político nacional. En el caso de la región amazónica, sería la marcha histórica Allpamanda, Kawsaymanda, Jatarishinchik la que sitúa en el panorama político a las nacionalidades amazónicas. En 1988 se crea la Dirección Nacional de Educación Intercultural Bilingüe DINEIB, cristalizándose uno de los puntos centrales de la lucha del movimiento indígena por una educación propia, autónoma e independiente. En este contexto se enmarca la necesidad de una educación intercultural que responda a la cosmovisión de los pueblos indígenas y que recoja en sus contenidos la amplia gama y expresiones socio-culturales e identitarias que parten de los conocimientos tradicionales o ancestrales de los pueblos y nacionalidades indígenas (eco-culturales).
Text and photos: Johanna Hohenthal
The government of Rafael Correa (2007-2017) pushed modernization of the education system in Ecuador through the establishment of large millennium schools at the expense of small rural schools [1, 2]. In the province of Pastaza, the government did not close upper secondary schools, but the reform hit hardest to the primary school students whose school journeys became longer due to closing down of community schools. In March, the research team visited the Shuar territory where three primary schools had been closed and several others had barely avoided the closure thanks to community resistance.
Text and photo by Katy Machoa, Amazonian Kichwa, former leader of the CONAIE women
“Your map has no use… We do not recognize the government’s name bloque 22. Our ancestral territory is not an oil block, it’s our life, and these are our words, our crossed spears”
Oswaldo Nenquimo (2019)
The first reaction of the pekenani (wise elder) representatives of 16 Waorani communities of Pastaza, organized in CONCONAWEP, after the sentence of Judge Pilar Araujo of the Provincial Court of Pastaza that accepted the action for protection and stated that constitutional right of prior, free and informed consultation had been violated, was to dance and sing. The audience hall was flooded by the energy of the Waorani voices and by the dance that drew the glorified dignity. So small was the space that shortly the energy spread to the outskirts; surely that energy connected with its territory, as well as with all the hearts defending the Amazonian life.
Redacción y foto: Katy Machoa, Nacionalidad Kichwa Amazónica, Ex–Dirigente de la Mujer CONAIE
“Su mapa no sirve… No reconocemos que el gobierno llame bloque 22. Nuestro territorio ancestral, no es un bloque petrolero, es nuestra vida, estas son nuestras palabras, nuestras lanzas cruzadas”
Oswaldo Nenquimo (25 de abril 2019)
La primera reacción de los y las “pekenani” (anciano/a sabio/a) representantes de 16 comunidades Waorani de Pastaza, organizadas en CONCONAWEP, tras escuchar la sentencia de la jueza Pilar Araujo de la Corte Provincial de Pastaza en la que se aceptaba la acción de protección y se reconocía la vulneración al derecho constitucional de la consulta previa, libre e informada fue bailar y cantar. La sala de audiencia quedo inundada por la energía de las voces waorani y por la danza que dibujaba la dignidad enaltecida, tan pequeño quedo el espacio que en poco tiempo se esparció a las afueras y con seguridad esa energía se conectó con su territorio, así como se conectó con los corazones que defendemos la vida amazónica.