Pluralismo ecocultural y educación intercultural en territorios amazónicos

En abril de 2019 organizamos panel coordinado en el XVII Encuentro de Geografía de América Latina (EGAL 2019) que tuvo lugar en Quito, Ecuador. Les hacemos llegar abajo dos de las ponencias presentadas en este panel sobre ‘Pluralismo ecocultural y educación intercultural en territorios amazónicos’.

Contribución de la categoría territorio al Sistema de Educación Bilingüe de la Nacionalidad Kichwa de Pastaza.

Andrés Tapia (Universidad Estatal Amazónica / Confeniae)

Andrés Tapia y Ruth Arias en el encuentro de geógrafos de América Latina (EGAL), Quito, abril de 2019

En la década de los 90s emerge el Movimiento Indígena del Ecuador como un actor protagónico de la vida política nacional a partir del Primer Levantamiento de 1990 que sitúa a la Confederación de Nacionalidades Indígenas del Ecuador CONAIE en el mapa político nacional. En el caso de la región amazónica, sería la marcha histórica Allpamanda, Kawsaymanda, Jatarishinchik la que sitúa en el panorama político a las nacionalidades amazónicas. En 1988 se crea la Dirección Nacional de Educación Intercultural Bilingüe DINEIB, cristalizándose uno de los puntos centrales de la lucha del movimiento indígena por una educación propia, autónoma e independiente. En este contexto se enmarca la necesidad de una educación intercultural que responda a la cosmovisión de los pueblos indígenas y que recoja en sus contenidos la amplia gama y expresiones socio-culturales e identitarias que parten de los conocimientos tradicionales o ancestrales de los pueblos y nacionalidades indígenas (eco-culturales).

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Community resistance against school closure in the Shuar territory

Text and photos: Johanna Hohenthal

The government of Rafael Correa (2007-2017) pushed modernization of the education system in Ecuador through the establishment of large millennium schools at the expense of small rural schools [1, 2]. In the province of Pastaza, the government did not close upper secondary schools, but the reform hit hardest to the primary school students whose school journeys became longer due to closing down of community schools. In March, the research team visited the Shuar territory where three primary schools had been closed and several others had barely avoided the closure thanks to community resistance.

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Waorani: a triumph in the defense of the territory

Text and photo by Katy Machoa, Amazonian Kichwa, former leader of the CONAIE women

“Your map has no use… We do not recognize the government’s name bloque 22. Our ancestral territory is not an oil block, it’s our life, and these are our words, our crossed spears”
Oswaldo Nenquimo (2019)

Waorani people dancingThe first reaction of the pekenani (wise elder) representatives of 16 Waorani communities of Pastaza, organized in CONCONAWEP, after the sentence of Judge Pilar Araujo of the Provincial Court of Pastaza that accepted the action for protection and stated that constitutional right of prior, free and informed consultation had been violated, was to dance and sing. The audience hall was flooded by the energy of the Waorani voices and by the dance that drew the glorified dignity. So small was the space that shortly the energy spread to the outskirts; surely that energy connected with its territory, as well as with all the hearts defending the Amazonian life.

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Waorani: la defensa del territorio triunfa

Redacción y foto: Katy Machoa, Nacionalidad Kichwa Amazónica, Ex–Dirigente de la Mujer CONAIE

“Su mapa no sirve… No reconocemos que el gobierno llame bloque 22. Nuestro territorio ancestral, no es un bloque petrolero, es nuestra vida,  estas son nuestras palabras, nuestras lanzas cruzadas”
Oswaldo Nenquimo (25 de abril 2019)

Waorani people dancingLa primera reacción de los y las “pekenani” (anciano/a sabio/a) representantes de 16 comunidades Waorani de Pastaza, organizadas en CONCONAWEP, tras escuchar la sentencia de la jueza Pilar Araujo de la Corte Provincial de Pastaza en la que se aceptaba la acción de protección y se reconocía la vulneración al derecho constitucional de la consulta previa, libre e informada fue bailar y cantar. La sala de audiencia quedo inundada por la energía de las voces waorani y por la danza que dibujaba la dignidad enaltecida, tan pequeño quedo el espacio que en poco tiempo se esparció a las afueras y con seguridad esa energía se conectó con su territorio, así como se conectó con los corazones que defendemos la vida amazónica.

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Taller sobre interculturalidad y educación

– Colaboración entre FLACSO y UEA

Redacción y Fotos: Mayra Espinosa

Figura 1. Docentes participantes en el proceso de inducción al taller.

El día viernes 8 de marzo de 2019 se llevó a cabo el curso taller de “Interculturalidad y Educación” en la Universidad Estatal Amazónica. Participaron un total de 28 personas: 20 docentes de la UEA de los Departamentos de Ciencias de la Vida y Ciencias de la Tierra, Cuatro estudiantes de las nacionalidades indígenas que se interesaron por participar del taller y 4 personas del Laboratorio de Interculturalidad de FLACSO.

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Thinking about development and good living

Text and photograph by Tuija Veintie

Picture of Paola Minoia with Mikko Ylikangas.
Paola Minoia presenting at Development Days 2019. On the left: Mikko Ylikangas, Academy of Finland.

At the end of March our Helsinki based research group members participated in Development Days 2019, the annual conference organized by the Finnish Society for Development Research. This year the conference theme “Repositioning global development: changing actors, geographies and ontologies” invited the conference participants to critically examine and redefine the meanings of development, and discuss alternatives to the dominant discourses on development.

In his keynote lecture Ashish Kothari presented examples of alternatives from around the world, including self-governance initiatives, economic transformations and different educational initiatives that are rooted in local cultures and ecologies. He urged the audience to examine the structural roots of sustainability and inequity, and vision alternative futures from the grassroots up.

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Actividades por el Día Internacional de la Lengua Materna

Texto y foto: Andrés Tapia

En la Amazonía ecuatoriana, como a nivel mundial, el 21 de febrero se conmemora el Día Internacional de la Lengua Materna. En Ecuador, con 14 lenguas ancestrales de las diferentes nacionalidades existentes en su territorio, esta fecha no ha pasado desapercibida. En este año 2019 declarado como el Año Internacional de las Lenguas Indígenas por parte de La Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU), las nacionalidades de la Amazonía realizaron dos eventos en el marco de esta fecha de reivindicación de la lengua y los idiomas ancestrales.

Danza Shuar
Danza Shuaren la Parroquia Sevilla Don Bosco

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Discussing intercultural education and the Amawtay Wasi project in Quito with indigenous and State representatives, January 2019

Text by Paola Minoia, photograph by Andrés Tapia

Together with the compañeras Ruth, Mayra and compañero Sachachristo (Andrés), we met in Quito, in January 2019, institutional representatives institutions dealing with the new reform on intercultural bilingual education, and the reopening of the intercultural university Amawtay Wasi.

Paola Minoia and Jaime Vargas, president of CONAIE

The president of CONAIE (Confederacion de Nacionalidades Indigenas del Ecuador), Jaime Vargas, told us about his own experiences with indigenous education, as a professor for seven years in his community; and the dreams of a relaunched intercultural bilingual education accessible, flexible and welcoming to all. His talk underlined the contrast between the need of deeper philosophical and pedagogical discussions on education and the pluriverse, and the realities made of heavy negotiations and bureaucratic lengthy procedures that are involved in the relaunch of the intercultural university Amawtay Wasi. Continue reading “Discussing intercultural education and the Amawtay Wasi project in Quito with indigenous and State representatives, January 2019”

Why is Intercultural Bilingual Education important in Ecuador? A short presentation of our Academy-funded project.

Text by Paola Minoia

This is a note from the presentation at the Develop! kick-off seminar organized by the Academy of Finland in Paasitorni Congress Centre, Helsinki 26.11.2018

Our project addresses the problematic relation between formal education and indigenous rights. Education is a fundamental field for cognitive recognition and rights, and this is why indigenous organizations have positioned the goal of intercultural education high in their agenda. Ecuador is a plurinational state, as stated by the 2008 Constitution, which means that all nationalities and ethnic groups have the right to equal representation in the country. Therefore, the main goal of our Academy-funded project is to support the recognition of Amazonian indigenous ecological and cultural knowledges as part of quality education. Continue reading “Why is Intercultural Bilingual Education important in Ecuador? A short presentation of our Academy-funded project.”

Into the Jungle

Text and photos by Riikka Kaukonen

We had already been conducting fieldwork for a bit over one month in the city of Puyo and the communities surrounding it, as we stood in front of a small monoplane on the late morning of 22nd of October. The past months we had concentrated on the experiences of indigenous students of different levels of higher education:

What were the main obstacles they had faced during their education history?

How they saw the relationship between occidental epistemology present in the educative system, and the cosmovision and worldviews of their respective backgrounds?

How could the intercultural and bilingual education programs strengthen the identity and self image of the indigenous nationalities of Pastaza, while engaging with the rich multiplicity and differences that exists between and inside these groups?

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