Factors affecting mathematical development

Early mathematical development comes about in relation to various intra-individual (i.e. internal) and environmental (i.e. external) factors (Hart, Petrill, & Thompson, 2010; Petrill et al., 2012). Regarding early mathematical development, domain-general cognitive skills and domain-specific mathematics skills (i.e. internal factors) and the early learning environment (i.e. external factors) are fundamental.



  • Hart, S. A., Petrill, S. A., & Thompson, L. A. (2010). A factorial analysis of timed and untimed measures of mathematics and reading abilities in school aged twins. Learning and Individual Differences, 20,63–69. doi:10.1016.j.lindif.2009.10.004
  • Petrill, S., Logan, J., Hart, S., Vincent, P., Thompson, L., Kovas, Y., & Plomin, R. (2012). Math fluency is etiologically distinct from untimed math performance, decoding fluency, and untimed reading performance: Evidence from a twin study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(4), 371–381. doi:10.1177/0022219411407926