Theoretical framework

The theoretical framework provides information about the core mathematical skills in the age group of 5-8-year-old children. Furthermore, it includes knowledge about mathematical difficulties and factors that affect mathematical development. Knowledge about interventions related to supporting children with weak mathematical skills is also provided. These have influenced the development work of ThinkMath materials and may support the use of the material.



Core mathematical skills

Symbolic and non-symbolic number sense

Understanding mathematical relations

Counting skills

Basic skills in arithmetic

Early signs of mathematical learning difficulties

Identification of children with low early mathematical performance

Factors affecting mathematical development

Domain-general cognitive skills

Domain-specific mathematical skills

Early learning environment


Core elements

Models of pedagogical support

Essential instructional features to promote learning

Designs in intervention research

Methodological factors related to an intervention’s effectiveness